Introduction to the Standard Model of Particle Physics

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PHY557 Lecture Notes - Set 12 PHY557 Lecture Notes Set 12 file:///C|/DOCUME~1/PHY_CO~1/PHY557/PHY557_lecture_12.html (1 of 19) [12/7/2000 5:28:36 PM]
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Part III cont’ 4 The Higgs Mechanism The Higgs Mechanism, first invented by Peter Higgs, was used by Veltman and ‘t Hooft and others to lend mass to the gauge vector bosons of the weak interactions. The gauge fields (vector bosons) that are introduced to make the local gauge invariance of the particle field in the Lagrangian possible must necessarily be massless. Mass terms for a vector boson, like m 2 A µ A , do not stay invariant under the transformation of A A = A −∂ α / q . For the photon field this is perfectly fine, but is clearly not true for the massive weak vector bosons. The introduction of a complex scalar Higgs field into the Lagrangian, with a non-zero expectation value (a non-zero vacuum energy density) turns the initially massless gauge bosons into massive bosons, while one of the two Higgs field components disappears.
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Lecture 12 - PHY557 Lecture Notes Set 12 PHY557 Lecture...

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