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Unformatted text preview: Geology 30 09/01/2007 18:29:00 ← This class is about… ←-how the biosphere came about and the evolution of life on earth ←-the fossil record is the greatest evidence for evolution ←-how ancient organisms tell history • Presently there is a decrease in the diversity o Extinctions are a part of the history of life o 250 mya some species of algae in the ocean went extinct ←-how organisms interact with their physical and chemical environments ←-intelligent life is not necessarily the product of evolution • Paleontology= o Paleo: extinct organisms o Ology: department of knowledge ←-C. Darwin; Origin of Species; 1859 ←- Science is an effort to understand the world and how it works and to understand your environment • based on observation • experimentation o prediction • specific type of knowledge o beliefs are opinions o Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. Classification should reflect the Darwinian principle of common descent. o Binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. As the word "binomial" suggests, the scientific name of a species is formed by the combination of two terms: the genus name and the species descriptor. o The context of evolutionary biology is phylogeny, the connections between all groups of organisms as understood by ancestor/descendant relationships. phylogeny -- The evolutionary relationships among organisms; the patterns of lineage branching produced by the true evolutionary history of the organisms being considered. • Cladistics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships between organisms based on derived similarities. It is the most prominent of several forms of phylogenetic systematics, which study the evolutionary relationships between organisms. o As the end result of a cladistic analysis, tree-like relationship-diagrams called "cladograms" are drawn up to show different hypotheses of relationships. Jan 11 Section Paleontology- the study of extinct organisms; how life forms are related to their environments Biosphere- all the living things on Earth Fossil- the remnants of organisms preserved in the geological time scale Sedimentary rocks- ex.: limestone, sandstone, mudstone; composed of particles transported from elsewhere; they form in layers • The earth is 4.54 billion years old Lecture...
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This document was uploaded on 04/07/2008.
- Spring '08