Seam Notes - Lecture 1 1/15 Ice ages occur every...

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Lecture 1 1/15 - Ice ages occur every 250,000,000 years - This ice age began 40,000,000 years ago - Natural greenhouse enhancement causes the earth to be about 30 degrees C ~ 50 degrees Fahrenheit warmer that it would originally be - The earth right now is only 4 degrees Fahrenheit above the coldest the earth will ever get. - Over the span of 1 billion years, the average earth temperature will change about 15 degrees Farenheit. Lecture 2 1/17 Climatology - Climate: The processes of exchange of energy & mass between the earth (surface and ocean) and the atmosphere over a long period of time. - Climate relates to sum of all of the following: - Temperature (T) - Precipitation (P) - E (not sure what it means) - Cloud cover - RH (Relative Humidity) - Winds - Temperature and Precipitation are the two most important climate factors - 30 year averages are used - Monthly distributions are important as well - Weather : Day to day state of the atmosphere. Short changes in T, P, air, RH, etc. Climatology: A Brief History - Clim comes from the Greek word Klim = slope/inclination. It is the relation of the angle of the sun relative to the horizon to climate - Near equator: Sun is the directly overhead - Mid-latitudes: Alititude from 26.5° in the winter to 73.5° in the summer. - Arctic: Sun always near the horizon - “Airs, waters and places” – First climatology book, written by Hippocrates in ~400 B.C. - “Meteorologia” by Aristotle – 334 B.C. - First meteorology Treatise - Not much done until the 1500’s - Galileo: Thermometer (1593) - Torricelli: Barometer (1613) - Low Pressure System: The winds rotate in a counter-clockwise motion; brings storms, nor’easters occur
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- High Pressure System: The winds rotate in a clockwise motion; clear, sunny skies - Climate : Broad composite of average conditions of a region, measured in terms of temperature. (Avg T, avg T max , avg T min , avg T median ), amount of rainfall or snowfall, snow and ice cover, winds, relative humidity, clouds, etc. Climate
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