Opium Wars Notes - Opium Wars(1839-1842 Unequal treaties(1842-1843 Opening of Treaty Ports(Canton Fuzhou Xiamen Ningbo Shanghai Payment of Indemnities a

Opium Wars Notes - Opium Wars(1839-1842 Unequal...

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Opium Wars (1839-1842) Unequal treaties (1842-1843) -- Opening of Treaty Ports (Canton, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Ningbo, Shanghai) -- Payment of Indemnities, a total of 21 million pounds including: 6 of lost opium, 3 in settlement of debts with Cohong, 12 million for expenses incurred in fighting the Chinese. -- Abolition of the Canton Cohong -- The Island of Hong Kong given in perpetuity to the British -- Tari ff of export and impost customs regulated by the British The Opium and the Treaty of Nanjing was followed by a series of other treaties with other nations including: -- the United States (treaty of Wanghia in 1844). This treaty added the clause that American Protestant Missionaries could work in China. It also included the clause of the "most-favored nation" (extended privileges granted to a country to any other country who requested them). -- the French (1844) T he Opium War and Chinese Historiography Modernization in China: a product of external pressure or internal development?

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