Ch 18 Key Points - para 1 10/16/12 9:43 AM Chapter 18: Key...

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10/16/12 9:43 AMpara 1Chapter 18: Key PointsThe following annotated chapter outline will help you review the key points covered in this chapter.Instructions:Review the outline to recall events and their relationships as presented in the chapter.Return to skim any sections that seem unfamiliar.The changing worldviews, known as the scientific revolution and the Enlightenment, created perspectivesthat continue to dominate western societies.I.The Scientific Revolution:The development of modern science was one of the most importantcontributions of western society.A.ScientificThought in 1500:At the beginning of the sixteenth century, natural philosophers’worldviews were dominated by a Christian adaptation of Aristotle’s theories of an earth-centered universe.B.TheCopernican Hypothesis:In his work,On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres,NicolausCopernicus theorized that the earth, as well as other planets, revolved around a fixed sun. The theory,with its numerous scientific and religious implications, was sharply attacked by Protestants. Catholics onlymildly challenged the theory at first. Scientific examination of the theory moved slowly.C.FromBrahe to Galileo:Tycho Brahe’s new astronomical data, Johann Kepler’s new laws of planetarymotion, and Galileo Galilei’s expanded experimental method and new telescopic observations furtherconfirmed the Copernican theory. A new approach of learning and investigation provided the basis for theentire scientific revolution and a new perspective for western thought.D.Newton’sSynthesis:Isaac Newton synthesized the new revolutionary scientific theories into a singlesystem that could explain both earthly and heavenly motion. In his major work,Principia,Newton set forth
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Term
Fall
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DavidMintzes

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