Course Plan 1
The art and craft of persuasion that aims to influence a specific audience, through an effective use of
arguments supported with evidence.
Rhetorice makes use of a genre of speech, writing or visual
presentation that is appropriate to the exigence.
“Argument is an activity that helps us form our beliefs and determine our actions”.
An argument is based
on facts, values, assumptions, and a “common ground” between arguer and audience.
The source and
“good reasons” for an argument ought to be based on credibility and civic responsibility.
Counterarguments are of crucial importance in making a case.
Personal arguments are based on “internal
musings” over a set of choices in our situation.
Interpersonal arguments are usually “cooperative”, and not
always based on “confrontation”.
Professional arguments aim to communicate a set of “expert
knowledge”, and take on a problem to be solved.
The constraints of an argument are shaped by the elements of genre, time and place.
The Aristotlean canons of Rhetoric: Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, and Delivery.
All rhetorical analysis is open to growth through interface and interaction
Pathology of an Argument
Course plan 2
An argument is usually meant to impact the mind of the audience with an intent to persuade them to “believe
what you want them to believe or to act the way you want them to act”.
The rhetorical appeals that formulate a
classic argument are focussed on the following:
Logos: the claims, and the facts, beliefs, and values in support of these
Ethos: the arguer’s character, social roles and personal qualities
Pathos: the audience and their needs
Rational conviction, personal/professional credibility, and emotional content comprise the aforesaid three
The three components of an argument are the claim, the reason, and the warrant
The “chains of support” help you to expand the argument.
These include qualifiers, rebuttals, and
The evidence of an argument makes use of a variety of resources like stasistics, anecdotes, research data or field
survey. These might be based on personal experience, external testimony, a verifiable authority, published data,
and online sources
A Detailed View of Rhetorical Appeals
The most important factor relating to ethos in an argument is based on the “character” of the arguer, and the
“context” wherewith the arguments, occur
The personal, legal, public, and personal dimensions of the arguer’s background are of supreme importance