Secondary prevention•The methods include:1.Screening and 2. surveillance•In case the primary prevention methods fail, the next opportunity for preventing a disease is after a sickness has began but symptoms have not appeared i.e. before the patient feels sick. •This stage of disease is called sub-clinical or pre-symptomatic stage and the method of prevention at this stage is called secondary prevention.
•In many cases it is not possible to say precisely when the disease started and this is common in chronic diseases.•The process by which these sub-clinical cases are found out is by screening.•Screening- is the process by which we try to identify sub-clinical cases
•Examples of screening methods are:1.Weighing babies and young children to see if the weight falls.2. Examining urine and feacal specimen for parasites in school going children.3.Examining pregnant women for early signs of complications in their pregnancy (antenatal clinics).4.Self breast examination and pap smears.5. ELISA- HIV testing6. Chest X-ray etc
•Screening is only valuable if medical services can help the affected person and effective treatment must be available•Another form of screening is tracing the contacts of a person with an infectious illness such as TB or leprosy to see if any one else in that family or his/her friends are infected.
•When a regular record is kept on the number of new cases of a disease then it’s possible to check on the effectiveness of a control program or to detect an epidemic early. •This form of secondary prevention is called surveillance and it covers the whole community rather than individual.
Tertiary prevention•When a person realizes that he/she is ill, the diagnosis and treatment at this stage is called tertiary prevention.•Most of the curative care in the hospital/ health centre, both in-patient and out-patient occur at this stage.
•The tertiary methods aim at:reducing sufferingCuring the diseasePreventing disability•If a permanent disability sets in such as paralysis, then special rehabilitation services have to be made available to the patient.
Tertiary methods include:1.Diagnosis2.Treatment3.Management-e.g. people leaving with chronic infections (e.g. Diabetes, HIV/AIDs)4.Rehabilitation
Relationship between health, disease and death
HEALTH EDUCATION AND PREVENTION OF DISEASE•There’s need to educate people about good health living. Health education is essential if people are to learn about how to live healthy lives and avoid diseases•Health educationis the process that informs, motivates and helps people to adopt and maintain healthy practices and lifestyles, advocate environmental changes as needed to facilitate this goal and conduct professional training and research.
•Health educationis a process of dialogue with the community members to find appropriate responses to health problems.
Role of health education in primary prevention of disease 1. Helps people to understand their bodies and value their health2.