HST_100.docx.pdf - HST 100 History of Kazakhstan WEEK 1...

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HST 100 History of Kazakhstan WEEK 1 (17 - 23 AUG) Introduction WEEK 2 (24 - 30 AUG) The Mongol Conquests Authority is the moral or legal right or ability to rule and control. ‘State’s legitimacy rests on the chance that people will follow its commands as a given source of power’ (Max Weber). Three forms of authority: charismatic leadership, established tradition, reason, order and law. Nomadic Pastoralism : 1. Main form of economic activity 2. Herds graze free-range without stables, year-round 3. Seasonal mobility is contained within a specific grazing territory 4. The entire population is mobile Why nomadise? Cattle breeding offer advantages over agriculture Climatic aberrations preclude raising crops effectively Domestication of horse and increased mobility Gradual process - thousands of years Pastoralist economy is not self-sufficient The source of super-tribal unity in the steppe world was the belief in Tengri conferring the right to rule on a single clan. The heavenly charisma resided in the royal clan, individual members of which could be elevated to the supreme office of the ruler, while non-members could not. Chinggis Khan even said he was ‘protected by the everlasting heaven’. The most impressive and enduring tradition of institutionalised ancestry is the Chinggisid line . Why did the empire fracture? The Mongol Empire started as a family venture Chinggis Khan’s four sons born from his first wife Borte had right for his power inheritance He allotted each of them his own ulus in line with appanage system common to nomads
Appanage is a common practices in many monarchies when titles are granted to dependent members of ruling elite or vassals Ulus rulers had to obey Great Khan , but in reality, cultural assimilation, rivalry and time flow contributed to gradual increase of their independency Lateral system of succession is a custom when a best qualified candidate inherited the previous ruler’s titles and estates. Power Inheritance The Mongol Empire was the property of the Golden Clan The power inheritance limited to descendants of Chingis’s four sons Chingissids preferred to use lateral system of succession and combined it with merit-based principle The Qurultai , a council of tribal leaders, had a right to assign individuals to leadership Any direct descendant of the Chinggis Khan could potentially be the next ruler of a Khanate , especially if he had authority among others With time, the number of potential claimants for the throne and appange multiplied arousing tense competition among them Still tracing ancestry to the Golden Clan was a prerequisite for claims for power in Central Asia The Golden Horde The largest appanage had been granted by Chinggis khan to his eldest son Juchi It came into existence as a separate entity earlier and continued longer than other main uluses The core of the Golden Horde was the vast steppe stretching from the Irtysh to th e Danube (Дунай) The Steppe Domain of the Golden Horde was divided into right

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