Jazz Midterm Revie1 - Jazz Midterm Review 1 Explain in...

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Jazz Midterm Review 1. Explain in detail the concept of cross-fertilization as it relates to the development of jazz in North America between the 1619-1900s. Be sure to indicate the relationship between music in Africa and Western Europe. Cross fertilization is the mixture of African and Western European cultures in North America. North American plantations were smaller so slaves and their slave owners had more interaction. Also, the interaction allowed the slaves to be introduced to European music. This cultural contact is also called being Africanized. Africanization is the changing of cross-fertilization by the slaves. This africanizations was observed in Congo Square, a vacant lot given to the slaves so they could socialize on Sundays. Congo Square was a major site for cross-fertilization because the slaves were forced to come together, which created an exchange of dances, music, language and culture. Through all this mixture the slaves became acquainted with western European culture and combined it with their own. 2. Explain in detail, the development of ragtime during the 1800s. Include changes in instrumentation and name specific cities as well as major contributors in the development of ragtime. Ragtime originated in Sedalia, MO. a.k.a “funny music” by the local musicians developed in Midwest mining camps played by piano (stresses the 1 st and 3 rd beats) general form AA-BB-A-CC-DD originally played by the guitar because it was more mobile than piano overtime changed from banjo piano, susaphone upright bass, coronet trumpet
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evolved from city to city Sedalia St. Joseph - music stayed the same, to Joplin it became syncopated; St. Louis it was more blues, New Orleans became more improvisational. Scott Joplin and Jelly Roll Morton- 2 major contributors S. Joplin- father of ragtime and his “Maple Leaf Rag” created the base of ragtime J.R. Morton- King of Jazz and was the 1 st musician to write ragtime down 3.
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