Introduction to SociologySTUDY GUIDE – EXAM 2Major theoretical perspectives and their approaches and applications to each topic we’ve coveredTypes of deviance-Functionalist (Durkheim, strain theory), symbolic interaction (differential association, social disorganization) , conflict theory (power elite)Crime -Crimes are a special kind of deviant behavior, they are punishable with fines, jail, and other sanctions.Sociological theories of deviance (e.g., strain theory, differential association theory, etc.)-Approaches to social control-Punitive justice: make violator suffer, often at the hands of a group, to define acceptable behavior and create unity.-Rehabilitative justice: examine why a particular individual was deviant and try to rehabilitateStigma-A negative social label that changes your behavior towards a person and also can change that person’s self-concept and social identity. Incarceration and crime-Main points from video “Cracked Justice” (narrated by Jay Z)-Differential sentencing for crack vs. powder cocaine-Races (blackman in prison more than white by doing drugs the same way)Social control-Mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals. Stratification and its basic principles-Social inequality between groups of people. -Basic principles:-1. Social rankings apply to social categories of people who share a common characteristic(class, power, race…)-2. Life experience and opportunities depend heavily on how their social category is ranked.