Psy 1630 Final Exam Study Guide

Psy 1630 Final Exam Study Guide - Study questions 3rd hour...

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Study questions 3 rd hour exam Psychology 1630 Chapter 12 1. Know the basic changes in the brain during middle childhood (ages 6-8) a. Myelination (particularly in the frontal cortex) continues up to adulthood myelination provides the axon of cortical neurons with an insulating sheath of tissue that speeds transmission of nerve impulses b. Synaptic pruning, the process by which nonfunctional synapses die off, continues for late- maturing areas of the brain (the frontal and prefrontal cortices), reducing the density of synapses among neurons; more stable connections are found among remaining neurons c. Brain activity patterns (as measured by an EEG) show more alpha activity (characteristic of engaged attention) versus theta activity (characteristic of adult sleep states) after 7 years of age (between 5-7 years of age the alpha and theta activity are about equal) d. Synchronization of electrical activity in different areas of the brain, called EEG Coherence, increases significantly, reflecting the fact that different parts of the brain function more effectively as coordinated systems i. According to Robert Thatcher (1994), evidence of increased coordination between the electrical activity of the frontal lobes and the electrical activity in other parts of the brain is also particularly important 2. Know the basic cognitive changes that occur—Piagetian and information processing—in middle childhood a. Piaget – Emergence of concrete operations (coordinated mental actions that fit into a logical system in a way that creates greater unity of thinking) – these mental operations are concrete in a sense that they depend upon support from concrete objects in everyday activities i. The physical world becomes more predictable because children come to understand that certain physical aspects of objects, such as size, density, length, and number, remain the same even when other aspects of the object’s appearance have changed Conservation of Quantity: 1. Conservation : Piaget’s term for the understanding that some properties of an object or substance remain the same even when its appearance is altered in some superficial way (fully mastered by age 8) 2. Identity (mental operation): The child realizes that a change limited to outward appearance doesn’t change the actual amounts involved (“they were equal to start with and nothing was added, so they’re the same”) 3. Compensation (mental operation): Changes in one aspect of a problem are mentally compared with and compensated for by changes in another (“the liquid is higher, but the glass is thinner”) 4. Reversibility (or negation ; mental operation): The child realizes that one operation can be negated, or reversed, by the effects of another (“if you pour it back, you’ll see that it’s the same) b. Children’s thinking becomes more organized and flexible; they can think about alternatives and
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Psy 1630 Final Exam Study Guide - Study questions 3rd hour...

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