Name____________________________________________________________Period________ _____ Review Questions for AP test unit 1 1. Viruses are something of anomaly in the world of living organisms. Discuss viruses in relation to the 5 characteristics that define life. 2. From a molecular standpoint, why is carbon a suitable atom to be the backbone of all organic molecules? 3.Also from a molecular standpoint, why is water a suitable substance to make up the majority of living organisms? 4. In what living systems that we have studied this year do buffers play a critical role? Discuss at least one biological buffer system. Role of carbonic acid. 5. Describe the processes of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis as they pertain to the formation and breakdown of biological molecules. 6. For each of the major classes of biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids), describe the monomer unit, major polymers and give the function of the molecules in each category. 7. Describe the process by which proteins become “specific” (structurally). How does heat or altered pH affect protein specificity and why? 8.Describe Miller and Urey’s experiment. 9. How are hydrogen bonding, cohesion, and adhesion related to transpiration? 10. pH scale, acids H+ ions, bases OH ions, neutral
Unit 2a 1. Discuss the major structural differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Include a description of the endosymbiotic theory for the appearance of eukaryotic cells. 2. Label the picture of a plasma membrane explain each of the parts. What is the role of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates in membranes? 3. Why does the membrane arrange itself they way it does? 4. Why are membranes selectively permeable? 5. How electrochemical gradients are formed and function in cells. 6. Membrane proteins are responsible for transport (carrier facilitated diffusion), signaling, recognition, cell amplification (second messengers), and cell to cell communication. Describe how membrane proteins accomplish each of these functions and give an example specific to each category. (some key terms-active transport, passive transport, co transport, sodium-potassium pump, auqaporins, intercellular junctions-tight, desmosomes, gap. 7. Examine the picture above and describe the relationship of each cell to its environment. What term is used to describe each relationship…hyper, hypo or isotonic? Design an experiment to determine the concentration of solution in each beaker and the specific relationship of one cell to another in terms of their osmotic concentration.
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