Anthropology Midterm 1 Review

Anthropology Midterm 1 Review - WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION...

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WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION Anthropology: the study/science of humans Archaeology: investigates the human past, main directs of investigations-material goods, asks-“What do these objects tell us about the past?” Physical anthropology: investigates humans as biological creatures, looks at biology, genetics, and other related species (primates), and asks-“How have humans developed physically over time?” Linguistic anthropology: investigates human languages, looks at language in a social context, asks-“How do different languages affect how people understand the world and how are they related to particular social behavior?” Cultural anthropology: examines behavior, beliefs, and social organization, main interest-society and culture, central methodology-fieldwork (ethnography), asks-“What does this mean?” and “How do we know what this means?” Cultural anthropology is holistic, comparative (similarities and differences), translation (how something is expressed from one culture to another), and interpretive, relativistic (understand a culture on its own terms) Applied anthropology: uses anthropology methods and concepts to help people solve problems in their daily lives Culture: the system of meanings about the nature of an experience that are shared by a people and passed on from one generation to another Ethnocentrism: the tendency to judge the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures from the perspective of one’s own culture The ethnocentric fallacy: the mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of one’s own culture Relativism: the attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are found Relativistic fallacy: the idea that it is impossible to make moral judgment about the beliefs and behaviors of members of other cultures Epistemology: thinking about thinking Funerary cannibalism: Wari’ practice, eating a body after someone dies, did because it’s cold in earth, and by eating the dead it would be easier to get over grief because it’s not there as a symbol of reminder Wari’: Practice cannibalism, Ancient South American culture
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Cultural text: a way of thinking about culture as a text of significant symbols-words, gestures, drawings, natural objects-that carries meaning Balinese cockfight: symbolizes confrontation, never within a tribe, peaceful tribe, fight through making roosters fight to see who has the better “cock” as in who is the better person Brideprice: money paid to the bride’s family when a marriage takes place Tiv: African culture, storytelling is a big part of their culture, in Hamlet: didn’t understand the concept of ghost, view in afterlife is different, think ghost is a bad omen, unfortunate things are caused by witches in their culture, ghosts = witches, witch drowned, not water. Witchcraft: Something Tiv believed in, bad omen, didn’t necessarily practice – just believed
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Anthropology Midterm 1 Review - WEEK 1: INTRODUCTION...

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