AP_Islam_lecture_notes_continued - XV Islam(cont C The Arab Empire of the Umayyads 1 death of Muhammad a died suddenly in 632 b religion held together

AP_Islam_lecture_notes_continued - XV Islam(cont C The Arab...

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XV. Islam (cont…) C. The Arab Empire of the Umayyads 1. death of Muhammad a. died suddenly in 632 b. religion held together despite internal disputes c. many Bedouin tribes renounced the faith right after Muhammad’s death d. remaining followers fought over who would be his successor e. new leaders led campaigns to force those who had left the faith to rejoin f. by 633, most of Arabia was Muslim g. military began to launch campaigns beyond Arabia and were successful conquering Mesopotamia, North Africa, and Persia h. empire resulting from these conquests were Arab not Muslim, ruled by an Arab military elite, led by the Umayyads and other important clans i. not interested in converting those they conquered 2.Consolidation and Division in the Islamic Community a.Muhammad had not appointed a successor or made a procedure for choosing a new leaderb.Very divided over who should rule, needed someone strong enough to hold them togetherc.When Muhammad died, one clan held a meeting to choose a caliph-political and religious leaderd.Passed over Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, Ali b/c he was too young, this caused conflicte.632, chose Abu Bakr (632-634), earliest follower and close friend of Muhammadf.Abu Bakr was wise and kind and also knew the history of tribes well which helped g.Had no financial support from Muslim community, so he had to also work as a merchanth.Had loose control over the militaryi.Military commanders defended Mecca against attacks, fought rival prophets and clans in the Ridda Warsj.Ridda Wars brought tribes back to Islamk.Abu bakr then oversaw w/ raids outside of Arabia in Iraq, Syria, and Egyptl.Originally only after booty, but then realized Byzantine and Persian empires were vulnerablem.Raiding Muslims also had support of Arabs that hd moved into Fertile Crescent over the years 3.Motives for Arab Conquests

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