c19 - BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture CHAPTER...

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BIOLOGY 2402 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture CHAPTER 19 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM THE BLOOD
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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM – THE BLOOD (As cells become more differentiated, they become less capable of carrying on an independent existence) Example: Specialized cells are less able to: a. Protect themselves from extreme temperature, toxic chemicals, and changes in pH b. Cannot seek food or devour whole bits of food; c. Cannot move away from their own wastes, if firmly implanted in a tissue Interstitial Fluid (also known as Intercellular or Tissue fluid ) - bathes cells and carries out the above mentioned functions for them. Extracellular fluid - composed of interstitial fluid. * Blood plasma and lymph service the interstitial fluid, blood, plasma, and other fluids. All termed as fluids outside of cells. * Blood and lymph, in turn service the interstitial fluids. (Picks oxygen from the lungs, nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, and hormones from endocrine glands). ** Since the blood services all the tissues of the body it can be an important medium for the transport of disease-causing organisms (pathogens). * Lymphatic System (a collection of lymphatic tissue and lymph vessels that contain a fluid called lymph) is the body's mechanism to protect itself from organisms.
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** Internal environment of the human organism - composed of blood inside blood vessels, interstitial fluid around body cells, and lymph inside lymph vessels. * Internal environment must be kept within normal physiological limits by a condition called homeostasis . * Cardiovascular system - Composed of the blood , heart , and blood vessels . Lymphatic system - Composed of the lymph, lymph vessels, and structures and organs containing lymphatic re-cycling capability of tissue (large numbers of white blood cells called lymphocytes). * Hematology - The branch of science concerned with the study of blood, blood-forming tissues, and the disorders associated with them. COMPARISON OF EXTRA CELLULAR FLUIDS A. 1. Blood Plasma 2. Lymph 3. Interstitial Fluid (Intercellular fluid) Are all similar in composition, but Plasma contains more protein . Principal chemical difference. (Transfer of materials between blood and interstitial fluid occurs by osmosis , diffusion , and filtration across the endothelial cells.) B. Interstitial fluid and Lymph also differ from Plasma in that they contain variable numbers of Leukocytes (white blood cells). C. Like Plasma , Interstitial fluid and Lymph lack Erythrocytes (red blood cells) and platelets.
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FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD 1. It transports: -Oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body; - Carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs; - Nutrients from gastrointestinal tract to the cells; - Waste products from cells; - Hormones from endocrine glands to the cells; - Heat from various cells. 2. It regulates: - pH through buffers - Normal body temperature through the heat-absorbing and coolant properties of its water content; - The water content of cells, principally through dissolved sodium ions (Na+) and proteins 3. It protects against: - Blood loss through the clotting mechanism;
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