physiology ch9 lecture

physiology ch9 lecture - Central Nervous System LECTURE...

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Central Nervous System LECTURE OUTLINE (CHAPTER 9) LECTURE OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the overall functional organization of the nervous system. 2. Discuss how the CNS is protected from both external trauma and any internal fluctuations that might occur in the body. 3. Describe the major brain regions and what each does. 4. Establish that CNS neural paths are precisely ordered for successful integration. 5. Discuss how sleep and memory are examples of CNS integration. Synapses: Electrical Chemical Direct current neurotransmitter Fast slow Little plasticity considerable plasticity (can be changed easily) Usually bidirectional unidirectional LECTURE OUTLINE I. GENERAL INTRODUCTION A. Introduction to the nervous system 1. Some functions of the nervous system a. Maintaining homeostasis b. Sensory input-receives and integrates info. so we know what happens c. Motor output-raising arm, walking, all controlled by CNS. This is efferent or outbound from CNS. d. Emotions, memory, personality, etc. B. Organization of the nervous system 1. Central Nervous System (CNS)-consists of brain and
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spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)-consists of sensory inputs and motor outputs I. PROTECTION AND NOURISHMENT OF THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD A. CNS is well-protected from internal/external change 1. Biochemical insults: Blood brain barrier ( BBB ) : protects against chemical changes. In all capillaries of brain and around spinal cord is very special type of epithelium (which has tight junctions which cause no breaks between the cells so nothing can squeeze through unless pumped out in some way; also epithelial cell contains transport mechanisms for substances that do need to enter-ex. special glut-transporter can transport glucose into brain so brain can get sugar it needs. This glut-transporter is insensitive to insulin. The BBB would permit all of the following substances to pass into the brain except: a. glucose b. oxygen c. toxins d. small lipid-soluble molecules e. water Answer is C: TOXINS!!!!! Ex. Antibiotics can not pass into BBB either 2. Physical insults : Skull, vertebrae, and meninges B. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) 1. Formation by choroid plexus 2. Composition 3. Drainage from arachnoid villi C. Dysfunctions (if time permits) III. FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD A. Introduction 1. Broca (medical doctor who studied pp w/ strokes) first showed that a specific brain structure had a function B. Spinal Cord
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1. Spinal cord organization /Relationship to spinal nerves: pp that lost ability to speak (could understand but not produce speech) frontal lobe had lesion-so knew certain part of the brain did a certain thing. 2. Functions of the spinal cord a. Relays information to and from brain via ascending and descending tracts from the spinal cord b. Pattern generators c. Spinal cord is involved in reflex arcs C. Brain : Brain stem, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, and Cerebrum Cerebrum is largest; Cerebellum: motor coordination; Brain stem: oldest part of brain
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course IPHY 3430 taught by Professor Lynch,robe during the Spring '08 term at Colorado.

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physiology ch9 lecture - Central Nervous System LECTURE...

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