Biology Test 3 Notes

Biology Test 3 Notes - Biology Test 3 Notes...

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Biology Test 3 Notes INHERITANCE—Download 12 Predictability is the difference between purebreds and mutts. Inheritance is how genetic information is stored in DNA is passed on. Genetics is the study of heredity. Experimental genetics began because of: o Gregor Mendel o Pea Plants (easy to grow, easy to distinguish characteristics, strict control over fertilization) o Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in certain characteristics and traced traits from generation to generation. Law of Segregation : o An organism has two alleles for each inherited characteristic o An organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent o If the two alleles of an inherited pair differ, the one that determines the organism’s appearance is the dominant allele and the one that has noticeable effect on the phenotype is the recessive allele. o Allele pairs separate from each other during the production of gametes.
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True breed is when each parent has to be homozygous for a particular trait. Alleles for a particular gene are located on the loci on the chromosome . Homozygous alleles are either both dominant or both recessive. i.e. AA or aa. Heterozygous alleles are mixed. i.e. Aa The Law of Independent Assortment states that allele pairs segregate independently during gamete formation. A dihybrid cross tracks two genes at one and proves that genes segregate independently. The genes behavior during meiosis and fertilization accounts for inheritance patterns. Testcross is mating between an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual. This is useful to reveal the unknown genotype. The Rule of Multiplication states that a compound event is the product of each separate probability. Study example. A carrier is an individual that is heterozygous for a recessive gene that predisposes a hereditary disease or condition. A pedigree is a specific genotype within an individual family. Achondroplasia is dwarf disease.
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Huntington’s disease doesn’t show up until middle age. The purpose of indentifying carriers of diseases is to see if they can pass it on to their offspring. Fetal testing looks for genetic abnormalities in unborn children. o Fetal Imaging—Ultrasound imaging that uses sound waves to produce a picture of the fetus. o Amniocentesis o CBS—analyze placenta Genetic testing will detect alleles that are disease causing. Variations of MENDAL’S LAWS o Incomplete Dominance —when the dominant allele is not fully expressed, intermediate phenotypes. o Codominance —if there is more than two alleles that exist for a characteristic. What are the 4 Blood Types? A—B—AB—O What does clumping signify? A reaction when blood is mixed with antibodies. It shows blood types are not compatible. Which blood type is the universal donor?
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOL 1543 taught by Professor Roberts during the Spring '08 term at Arkansas.

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Biology Test 3 Notes - Biology Test 3 Notes...

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