Completed Midterm Study Guide

Completed Midterm Study Guide - Midterm Study Guide...

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1) Words and Concepts Establishment Clause: (1 st Amendment) – Congress should make no law respecting the establishment of religion. Humanistic Ethics: Ethics based entirely on human reasoning/emotion. Literal Reading: Assume it refers to reading the Bible literally, not contextually. Altruism: Belief/Altruism that every human beings welfare is important. Consequentialism: What makes actions/policies right are consequence, not their nature. Theory of Deterrence: If you do something to show people/keep them from doing something. Equal Consideration of Interest: Welfare of each human counts equally. Relativism: No absolutes. Reaction to social conditions, actions/right wrong. Deontological Systems: Duty theory, right/wrong actions intrinsically right/wrong. Natural Law: Human response to Eternal law in which we use reason to promulgate, AKA God’s Will 2) In class we spoke a good deal about Thomas Hobbes. Prepare a statement that reflects your best understanding of Hobbes, including his beliefs about human nature . -Believed that humans exist in a ‘state of war.” (referred to as the “state of nature”) -“It’s all against all” -Out of this nature comes a term called “right of nature” – That is, the right to self-preservation. -Liberty is associated with the right of nature. -Man is viewed as a small, isolated, individualistic machine (make reference to egoism and maximizing self-interest) -Humans enter into a social contract to ensure security and preservation of self-interest -“Spending all your time looking for someone defeats itself.” -Hobbes was the original egoist -2 internal motions – (Modes) 1) Aversion 2) Appetite -Believed that NATURE, LAW, and REASON are free from their independent sources. -Thomas Hobbes believed that with the absence of government, humans would revert to a state called the “state of nature.” In that state, each person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. This inevitably leads to conflict, a "war of all against all", and thus lives that are "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" -Believed that in a society without law, life would be miserable. -Believed that in order to have order, you must have a “Leviathan.”
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PHILOSOPHY 105 taught by Professor Heter during the Spring '08 term at Saint Louis.

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Completed Midterm Study Guide - Midterm Study Guide...

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