Words and Concepts
Establishment Clause: (1
Amendment) – Congress should make no law
respecting the establishment of religion.
Humanistic Ethics: Ethics based entirely on human reasoning/emotion.
Literal Reading: Assume it refers to reading the Bible literally, not contextually.
Altruism: Belief/Altruism that every human beings welfare is important.
Consequentialism: What makes actions/policies right are consequence, not their
Theory of Deterrence: If you do something to show people/keep them from doing
Equal Consideration of Interest: Welfare of each human counts equally.
Relativism: No absolutes. Reaction to social conditions, actions/right wrong.
Deontological Systems: Duty theory, right/wrong actions intrinsically
Natural Law: Human response to Eternal law in which we use reason to
promulgate, AKA God’s Will
In class we spoke a good deal about Thomas Hobbes. Prepare a statement that
reflects your best understanding of Hobbes, including his beliefs about human
-Believed that humans exist in a ‘state of war.” (referred to as the “state of
-“It’s all against all”
-Out of this nature comes a term called “right of nature” – That is, the
right to self-preservation.
-Liberty is associated with the right of nature.
-Man is viewed as a small, isolated, individualistic machine (make
reference to egoism and maximizing self-interest)
-Humans enter into a social contract to ensure security and preservation of
-“Spending all your time looking for someone defeats itself.”
-Hobbes was the original egoist
-2 internal motions – (Modes) 1) Aversion 2) Appetite
-Believed that NATURE, LAW, and REASON are free from their
-Thomas Hobbes believed that with the absence of government, humans
would revert to a state called the “state of nature.” In that state, each
person would have a right, or license, to everything in the world. This
inevitably leads to conflict, a "war of all against all", and thus lives that
are "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
-Believed that in a society without law, life would be miserable.
-Believed that in order to have order, you must have a “Leviathan.”