Test IV Study Guide - PSY 201 Study Guide Test 4 Lecture 1...

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PSY 201 Study Guide Test 4 Lecture 1 October 25, 2005 Pages 506-514 Personality I: Personality traits Lecture Outline Personality o Definition o Trait theory o The big 5 o The Nature- nurture question o Personality and national character Personality: Walter Mischel o All consistent ways in which the behavior of one person differs from that of others, especially in social situations o Personality : Distinctive patterns of behavior, thoughts, and feelings that characterize an individual and influence the individual to life situations Theories of personality: Freud Gordan Allport Allport’s trait theory: Dispositional approach to personality o Stable individual differences across life span o Identify/ measure traits ( building blocks to personality ) 1 Psychoanalytic Humanistic Trait Behaviorism
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Seem to come in 4 categories Trait vs. state distinction o States are temporary and contextual o Traits are consistent, long lasting Major points of TRAITS for personality psychology: Dispositional : provide consistency in behavior Varying kinds : some superficial and specific; others basic and general Measure traits by overt behavior and self-report More on cental Traits: The big 5 model: (Allport) Big 5 personality Traits: o Psychometric approach (traits) How many (3-5-16-35)? o Using factor analysis (fancy correlation statistic) on self report questionnaire Identify clusters of related items o Dimensions predict, interestingly: Health, mortality, academic success, job performance, relationships, drug abuse, criminality The Big 5: NEOAC: (Assessed via the NEO-PI) 5 Personality dimensions (traits) o Neurotic : a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily Anxious, tense, self conscious, depressed, impulsive o Extroversion : a tendency to seek stimulation and the company of others Warm, gregarious, assertive, impulsive o Openness to new experiences : a tendency to enjoy new intellectual experiences Art, music, film, etc. o Agreeableness : a tendency to be compassionate Trusting, social concerns 2 Common Culture & society determining class Membership Central Tendencies highly characteristic of the individual & easy to infer 5-10. Perhaps 16?) Secondary Highly focal characteristics and limited in occurrence (likes and dislikes) Cardinal Dominant characteristics influencing every aspect of one’s life (Mother Teresa Trait) Ex. Gandhi, MLK, Hitler
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o Conscientiousness : a tendency to show self discipline and competence dutiful, achievement oriented Nature vs. Nurture and Personality: Once again. Looking at correlational data from twin studies o On the extraversion scale (others too) .58-.62 for MZ twins (identical) ( High correlation for a psychological variable) .20-.28 for DZ twins (fraternal) adopted siblings show no correlation in personality Environment has effect on personality o Another finding shows correlations among twins tend to increase into old age… why is
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Leslie during the Fall '08 term at University of Mississippi School of Law.

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Test IV Study Guide - PSY 201 Study Guide Test 4 Lecture 1...

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