Academic
AcademicClinic.com
Clinic.com
Clinic.com
The achiever’s guide to academic life and beyond…
Website:
http://academicclinic.com
Facebook:
http://www.facebook.com/academic.clinic
Twitter:
http://twitter.com/acadclinic
College entrance exam and science high school entrance test tips. Conquer UPCAT, ACET, USTET,
DLSUCET, PSHSNCE, and other entrance tests
.
Math I
 1 
Feel free to pass this on to your friends, but please don’t post it online.
Discuss UPCAT and other college entrance exam questions and answers at
AcademicClinic’s
Facebook Page
. We encourage you to answer the questions we post there and actively participate in
the discussions on our
wall
.
For UPCAT, ACET, DLSUCET and USTET tips, tricks, news and other college entrance exam
information, visit the
AcademicClinic website
. Tell your friends and classmates to come find and join
us. The more, the merrier. Good luck!
BASIC ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA
POINTERS
Whole (natural) numbers
Natural numbers
–
numbers, which appear as a result of calculus of single subjects: peoples, animals, birds,
trees, different wares and so on. Series of natural numbers:
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
…
is continued endlessly and is
called
natural series
.
Arithmetical operations
Addition
– an operation of finding a sum of some numbers: 11 + 6 = 17. Here 11 and 6 –
addends
,
17 – the
sum
. If addends are changed by places, a sum is saved the same: 11 + 6 = 17 and 6 + 11 = 17.
Subtraction
– an operation of finding an addend by a sum and another addend: 17 – 6 = 11.
Here 17 is a
minuend
,
6 – a
subtrahend
,
11 – the
difference
.
Multiplication.
To multiply one number
n (a multiplicand ) by another m ( a multiplier ) means to repeat a
multiplicand
n
as an addend m times. The result of multiplying is called a product. The operation of
multiplication is written as: n x m or n · m. For example, 12 x 4 = 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 = 48. In our case 12 x 4 =
48 or 12 · 4 = 48. Here 12 is a multiplicand, 4 – a multiplier, 48 – a product. If a multiplicand n and a multiplier
m
are changed by places, their product is saved the same:
12 · 4 = 12 + 12 + 12 + 12 = = 48
and
4 ·12 = 4 +
4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 48. Therefore, a multiplicand and a multiplier are called usually
factors
or multipliers.
Division
– an operation of finding one of factors by a product and another factor: 48 : 4 = 12. Here 48 is a
dividend
, 4 – a
divisor
, 12 – the
quotient
. At
dividing integers
a quotient can be not a whole number. Then this
quotient can be present as a
fraction
. If a quotient is a whole number, then it is called that numbers are
divisible
,
i.e. one number is divided
without remainder
by another. Otherwise, we have a division
with remainder
. For
example, 23 isn’t divided by 4 ; this case can be written as:
23 = 5 · 4 + 3.
Here 3 is a
remainder
.
Raising to a power.
To raise a number to a whole (second, third, forth, fifth etc.)
power
means to repeat it as a
factor two, three, four, five and so on. The number, repeated as a factor, is called a
base of a power
; the quantity
of factors is called an
index
or an
exponent of a power
; the result is called a
value of
a
power
. A raising to a
power is written as:
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.
View Full Document
Academic
AcademicClinic.com
This is the end of the preview.
Sign up
to
access the rest of the document.
 Spring '13
 OTIS
 Elementary arithmetic, college entrance exam

Click to edit the document details