Unformatted text preview: Being a School
12/2/2020 History and Development of PK-12 School Counseling Programs
● ● The ﬁeld of school counseling developed around the time of the Industrial
The change from agricultural lifestyles to industrial city living created higher
demands for labor. This resulted in a focus on vocational training for students.
In the 1920’s and 1930’s, the focus of school counseling expanded to include
student’s personal problems and challenges, in addition to career planning.
After WWII, the work of psychologist Carl Rogers began to greatly inﬂuence the
counseling ﬁeld. Rogers’ emphasis on “non-directive” or “client centered”
counseling techniques decreased counselors giving advice, and instead taught
individuals to be more in control of the counseling content.
In the 1950’s ASCA was developed, which helped to develop the roles and
identities of school counselors (Gysbers, N.C. & Henderson, P., 2001). History and Development of School Counseling Cont.
● ● ● In 1958, the National Defense Education Act provided federal aid to education,
which included school counseling.
In the 1960’s school counseling theories continued to develop and by the 1970’s a
new emphasis on accountability began to focus on structured evaluations and
assessment of treatment beneﬁts.
In the 1980’s, school counselors were trained to adapt and modify the educational
environment to meet individual student needs, such as special accommodations
for handicapped students and IEP’s.
In the 1990’s ASCA developed national standards for school counseling programs,
which continue to deﬁne the roles and responsibilities of school counselors and
counseling programs today (Gysbers, N.C. & Henderson, P., 2001). School Counseling Competencies for Leadership
● ● ● Professional foundation B-PF 7. Demonstrate leadership through the development and
implementation of a school counseling program. School counselors should be able to
identify skills of an effective leader, utilize a leadership model in the creation of a
school counseling program, and make positive changes to an existing program.
Direct and indirect student services B-SS 6. Collaborate with families, teachers,
administrators, other school staff and education stakeholders for student achievement
and success. School counselors should be able to partner with others, and identify and
involve appropriate individuals when needed.
Planning and assessment B-PA 1. Create school counseling program beliefs, vision,
and mission statements aligned with the school and district. A school counselor
should be able to identify the belief systems of a school and relay it to others
(American School Counseling Association, 2019). School Counseling Competencies for Advocacy
● ● ● Professional foundation B-PF 8. Demonstrate advocacy for a school counseling
program. School counselors should be able to advocate for school board policy and
state, local, and federal requirements for the best interests of students.
Direct and indirect student services B-SS 4. Make referrals to appropriate school and
community resources. School counselors should be able to maintain a list of relevant
resources and communicate the scope of school counseling and other mental health
Planning and assessment B-PA 8. Establish and convene an advisory council for the
school counseling program. A school counselor should be able to identify appropriate
stakeholders for an advisory council, explain and discuss school data, and incorporate
feedback (American School Counselor Association, 2019). School Counselor Competencies for Systems Change
● ● Professional foundation B-PF 9. Create systemic change through the
implementation of a school counseling program. School counselors should
be able to identify how policies support or hinder student success.
Planning and assessment B-PA 2. Identify gaps in achievement, attendance,
discipline, opportunity, and resources. A school counselor should be able to
implement changes at school based on data, and create goals to close any
achievement gaps that may be present (American School Counselor
Association 2019). School Counseling Professional Organizations
● American School Counselor Association (ASCA)
American Counseling Association
Michigan School Counselor Association (MSCA)
Required Standards and Credentials for School Counselors
● Completion of an approved graduate program in school counseling
Completion of a 600 hour internship under the supervision of a credentialed
Passage of the Michigan Test for Teacher Certiﬁcation (MTTC) school
counselor examination (Michigan Department of Education, 2020). Labor Market Information for the Field of School Counseling
● 2019 median pay - $57,040 per year (27.42 per hour) ● Typical entry level education - master’s degree ● 2019 number of jobs - 333,500 ● 2019-2029 job outlook - 8% (much faster than average) ● 2019-2029 employment change - 26,800 (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,
2020). School Counseling Roles - Working with Families
● The model code of ethics for educators states that school counselors must
uphold a student’s right to conﬁdentiality, while still upholding the legal rights of
the parents/guardians, and legal requirements to release information necessary
for the student’s well being.
The MCEE also requires school counselors to maintain a commitment to
diversity, with an attitude of inclusion to all types of families.
The school counselor should have the informed consent of the parent/guardian
prior to beginning ongoing counseling services with a student.
The school counselor should collaborate with families for student achievement
and success, and to ensure the best possible outcome the student (National
Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certiﬁcation (2015). School Counseling Roles - Working with School Personnel
● The MCEE requires school counselors to work towards effective and
appropriate relationships with colleagues by:
○ Maintaining civility and resolving conﬂicts respectfully
Collaborating in a way that supports the best interests of the students
Ensuring the staff are supported in appropriate roles based on their abilities
Making the workplace respectful for all (National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certiﬁcation (2015).
The ASCA competencies for school counselors also require that school counselors are able
to collaborate effectively with teachers, administrators, other school staff, and education
stakeholders in order to achieve the best possible outcomes for all students (American
School Counselor Association (2019). School Counseling Roles - Working with Community Agencies
● The MCEE states that school counselors must work towards effective
relationships with community agencies by collaborating with community
agencies and organizations for the best interests of students without
consideration of personal gain and maintaining a professional image in the
community (National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and
Certiﬁcation (2015). ● The ASCA school counselor competencies also require school counselors to
demonstrate an understanding of cultural, social, and environmental
impacts on student outcomes, and to make referrals to appropriate
community resources (American School Counselor Association, 2019). School Counseling Roles - Advocacy for Students and Families
● The MCEE states that school counselors will act in the best interests of
students in order to provide the best educational experience for students
and families, seeking to understand each student’s background, values,
culture, and beliefs.
The school counselor will work to provide an equitable environment and to
close any gaps in achievement.
Will treat all families with dignity and respect (National Association of State
Directors of Teacher Education and Certiﬁcation (2015). References
American School Counselor Association (2019). ASCA School Counselor Professional Standards & Competencies.
Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved November 17, 2005,
from . asp?contentid=173
Guidance and School Counseling - A Brief History of School Guidance and Counseling in the United States - Counselors,
Counselor, Students, and Education - StateUniversity.com
Gysbers, N. C., and Henderson, P. 2001. "Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright
Future." Professional School Counseling 4:246–256.
Model Code of Ethics for Educators (MCEE). National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and
Certiﬁcation (2015). Retrieved December 2, 2020, from
School and Career Counselors : Occupational Outlook Handbook. (2020, September 01). Retrieved December 02, 2020,
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