Study Guide Exam 2 {Spring 2008}

# Study Guide Exam 2 {Spring 2008} - Chemistry 0110 Spring...

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Chemistry 0110, Spring Term 2008 – Dr. Michael’s section Study Outline for the second Exam, 3/21/08 Study Outline: The exam covers Chapters 5-8: the quiz will consist of 10 multiple choice questions and about 5 problems and/or questions. On these last 5 problems, you will need to show your numerical work or, as appropriate, use sentences and/or annotated diagrams to answer the questions. There will be more questions/points related to Chapters 7 and 8 than to Chapters 5 and 6. Chapter 5: The Gaseous State Know the SI units related to this chapter – pressure, temperature, volume, energy, momentum, etc. You need to know the Ideal Gas Law (PV=nRT) and know how to rearrange it to deduce the empirical gas laws: Boyle’s, Charles’s, Combined Gas Law, Avagadro’s Law. Be able to perform calculations with Gas Laws (YES, ou will be given the gas constant and its units). Solve stoichiometric problems involving gas volumes. Understand gas mixtures and partial pressures. Be able to explain and use the Kinetic-Molecular Theory. Calculate rms molecular speeds. Understand diffusion and effusion. Know the differences between ideal and real gasses. Additional recommended problems: 63, 67, 69, 75, 79, 85, 87, 89. You should move on to the general and cumulative-skills questions when you are ready to study for the second exam. The gas laws will not be provided. You do not need to know each individual one, but you do need to know the Ideal Gas Law itself (PV=nRT) and how to use it to derive other gas laws. Boyles Law: PV = a constant Boyle’s Law works when the amount and temperature of the ideal gas are fixed. Boyles Law indicates that pressure times the volume is a constant: this leads to two other forms of the Law: V const P = , which shows that pressure and volume are inversely proportional to each other 2 2 1 1 V P V P = , i.e. that as the pressure and/or volume of the ideal gas sample is changed, the product of pressure and volume holds constant.

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Charles’ Law: = T V a constant Charles’ Law works when the amount and volume of the ideal gas are fixed. As with Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law can be rewritten in two useful forms: V = a constant x T, which shows that volume and temperature are directly related to each other. When extrapolated to zero volume, a plot of volume versus temperature intersects the temperature axis at -273.15 o C, which is ‘absolute zero’ on the Kelvin scale. 2 2 1 1 T V T V = , i.e. that the ratio of volume to temperature holds constant The Combined Gas Law: = T V P a constant Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law together lead to the Combined Gas Law, which works when the amount of the ideal gas is fixed. From the Combined Law, we get the following useful equation: 2 2 2 1 1 1 T V P T V P = , which can be used in several ways to calculate how the properties of an ideal gas sample change For example, to calculate how the volume changes, we can use: 1 2 2 1 1 2 T T P P V V = note that this equation is reached by applying ordinary rules of algebra to the previous equation: the point here is to do the algebra very carefully so that the ratios of pressure, temperature, etc. come out the right way –
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