Lecture_3_-_Pre-Socratics

Pythagoras 580 496 bc of croton 2 southern italy

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Unformatted text preview: ern Italy) (Southern 45/80 i. Taught that all life was kin, and the soul i. immortal and migratory. This meant that all humans and animals were on equal footing (hence vegetarian) (hence ii. His followers developed his religion into ii. a developed philosophy attributed to him, so it is not possible to know what his views precisely were precisely 47/80 iii. This school of thought heavily iii. influenced Plato, Empedocles (and of course the Neoplatonists and the Neopythagoreans) Neopythagoreans) iv. They believed that harmony was the key iv. to life to 48/80 v. A soul in harmony with nature (ascetic, v. disciplines intellectually, and aesthetically inclined to music) could become god-like inclined vi. However, the soul itself was something vi. other than natural, but it gave shape and limits to nature limits 49/80 vii. A person in harmony with the thoughts vii. of the universe could hear the music of the spheres spheres viii. Driven by their assumption of viii. harmony, they concluded that the earth was a spherical body that revolved around a Central Fire Central 50/80 ix. The cosmos was viewed as being ix. composed of numbers, and so finding these harmonious relationships could assist us harmonious x. Discovered mathematical relationships in x. geometry and music geometry 51/80 xi. They taught that we are strangers in this xi. world, that our bodies are tombs for our souls, and that the visible world is mere appearance with reality waiting for us beyond beyond 52/80 3. The Eleatics a. Parmenides (540-470) sought to the a. the Pythagorean assumption that motion and plurality can be explained by ideas (numbers and logic) is absurd. (We have to extrapolate his arguments from his poetry:) i. We cannot have knowledge of if facts keep changing keep 53/80 ii. Since this world is constantly ii. changing, we cannot have knowledge of this world (Is this a valid argument? What form does it take? Are the premises true?) premises iii. All we can really know are the world iii. of...
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