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Lecture04 - 1 Lecture 04 Chapter 3 Digestion Absorption and...

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Lecture 04: Chapter 3 - Digestion, Absorption and Transport A general overview of the processes common to all nutrients Digestion the process by which food is broken down into absorbable units The human body plan "a tube within a tube" The Digestive Tract Anatomy of the Digestive ( also known as the Gastrointestinal [GI]) Tract : Figure 3-1 The GI tract is a flexible muscular tube from the mouth , through the esophagus , stomach , small intestine , large intestine , and rectum to the anus . Five sets of valves control access of the food being processed to these various regions (see Figure 3.4): 1. The epiglottis 2. The two esophageal sphincters : the upper and the lower (the lower is also known as the cardiac sphincter ) 3. The pyloric sphincter 4. The ileocecal valve 5. The anus The principal organs of the GI tract are the stomach and intestines . Mouth : The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where the food is macerated and blended with secretions from the salivary glands ( saliva ). Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, because saliva contains amylases .
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