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US1 Unit 7 - Civil War Notes - Unit 7 The Civil War I. From...

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Unit 7 – The Civil WarI.From Bull Run to AntietamA.The First Battle of Bull Run- July 1861 (In Virginia)General Irwin McDowell, commander of the Union troops, said he needed more time to get his 90-dayvolunteers ready but Lincoln ordered him into action.What was his objective?March to Richmond, Virginia (Confederate Capitol).General P.G.T Beauregard commanded a smaller force of Confederate soldiers and was positionedalong Bull Run, a stream 4 miles north of a Manassas.The Union troops attacked on July 21 and drove the Southerners back, but who stopped the Unionadvance? The 22,000 Confederate troops lead by “Stonewall” JacksonThe Union troops retreated for the safety of Washington and the Confederates were too disorganizedand exhausted to pursue the Union Army.The 1stmajor battle of the Civil War was over (1stBattle of Bull Run) = Union had 2900 casualties,2000 for the Confederacy.DEFINE casualties. Someone who is injured, goes M.I.A. or is killedB.Preparing for WarBull Run caused some Americans on both sides to suspect that winning the war might not be so easy.1.Strengths of the North and the SouthNorth= 2X more railroad and factories, better economy with more money in the bank, 2/3 ofthe nation’s population and a navy.South= majority of military officers from the South, fighting a defensive war and werefighting to preserve their way of life.2.Union Military StrategiesLincoln ordered a naval blockade of the seceded states to block cotton from leaving andmanufactured goods from entering.General Winfield Scott strategy was to cut the Confederacy in 2 by controlling the MississippiRiver and getting the South to seek peace,Why was this plan (nicknamed Anaconda) scorned in the North?It was going to take a long time and the North (Union) wanted a short war3.Confederate War Strategies“All we ask is to be left alone” Jefferson Davis, Confederate President.Southern Strategy called for a war of attrition. DEFINE Wearing out the other sideThe South also planned to withhold cotton from England and France so those Europeancountries would put pressure on the Union.
Why did this strategy fail?England and France found new markets in the Pacific4.Tactics and TechnologyMost Civil War general had been trained to concentrate forces, attack the enemy and drivethem away.The muskets and canons were ineffective because they were inaccurate.How did bullets and rifling change this?Bullets drifted less, rifles were accurate up to 500 yardsShells(devices that exploded in the air or when they hit something) andcanister(shell filledwith bullets) made traditional tactics obsolete.C.War in the WestAfter the disaster at Bull Run, Lincoln named General George McClellan to build and command anew army (The Army of Potomac)Meanwhile, Union forces in the West invaded the Confederacy (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, andTennessee) and this became the “war in the west”.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Francis
Tags
Abraham Lincoln, Antietam, Civil War, American Civil War, Confederate States of America, President Lincoln

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