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soc 1 exam 1 study guide - Auguste Comte commonly known as...

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Unformatted text preview: Auguste Comte: commonly known as the founder of sociology. He emphasized that the study of society must be scientific, and he urged sociologists to employ systematic observationism, experimentation and comparative historical analysis as their methods. He divided the study of society into social staties and social dynamics. Concept: a general notion or idea; conception Emile Durkheim: Especially concerned with social solidarity, distinguishing between mechanical and organic solidarity. He contended that the distinctive subject matter of sociology should be the study of social facts. In a society exhibiting mechanical solidarity, its cohesion and integration comes from the homogeneity of individualspeople feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle. Mechanical solidarity normally operates in "traditional" and small scale societies.[2] Organic solidarity comes from the interdependence that arises from specialization of work and the complementarities between peoplea development which occurs in "modern" and "industrial" societies.[ Dysfunctions: Observed consequences that lessen the adaptation or adjustment of a system. Economic Determinism: a belief in the doctrine that economic factors are the primary determinants of the structure of societies and social change. Experiment: A technique in which researchers work with two groups that are identical in all relevant respects. They introduce a change in one group, but not in the other group. The procedure permits researchers to test the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Field Experiment: Experiment in which the independent variable is manipulated in a natural setting rather than in a laboratory. Functionalism:a theoretical orientation that views society as a system of interdependent parts whose functions contribute to the stability and survival of the system. Hull House: Chicago settlement house cofounded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Starr; The center of womens world of sociology. Hypothesis: A proposition that can be tested to determine its validity. Ideal Type: A concept constructed by sociologists to portray the principal characteristics of something they want to study. Latent functions: Consequences that are neither intended nor recognized by the participants in a system. Harriet Martineau: Wrote the first book on social research methods, and was among the first to do systematic, scientifically biased social research. Her comparative analysis of slavery and the position of women in the western world paved the way for femenist scholarship and the further persuit of gender equality. Karl Marx: focused his search for the basic principles in history on the economic environments in which societies develop. He believed that society is divided into those who own the means of producing wealth and those who do not, giving rise to class conflict. Dialectical materialism is Marxs theory that development depends on the clash of contradictions and the creation of new more advanced structures out of these clashes. Microsociology: The detailed study of what people say, do and think moment by moment as they go about their daily lives. Organic Solidarity: Modern societies in contrast are characterized by complex social structures and a sophisticated division of labor. People perform specialized tasks in factories, offices and schools. No one person is self sufficient, and all must depend upon others to survive. Under these circumstances, society is held together by the interdependence fostered by the differences among people. Participant observation: A technique in which researchers engage in activities with the people they are observing. Postmodernism: An intellectual movement that has influenced scholarship in art, politics, purpose, communications and other disciplines, as well as sociology. Postmodernists are deeply distrustful of science and the principle of objectivity. (dont believe in scientific research) Postmodernists point out that scientific knowledge has failed to solve social problems. Power: The ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will. Social Facts: The aspects of social life that cannot be explaned in terms of the biological or mental characteristics of the individual. People experience the social fact as external to themselves in the sense that it has an independent reality and forms a part of their objective environment. Sociological Imagination: The ability to see our private experiences, personal difficulties and achievements as, in part a reflection of the structural arrangements of society and the times in which we live. (C. Wright Mills) Social System: functionalist perspective that society is a system, a set of elements or components that are related to one another in a more or less stable fashion through a period of time. Functionalists focus on parts of society, particularly major institutions such as the family, religion, the economy, the state and education.->equilibrium Sociology: The scientific study of social interactions and of social organization. Streetcorner Men Symbolic Interactionism: The combined emphasis on symbols (shared meaning) and interaction. Theory: A general framework or perspective that provides an explanation for a specific social phenomenon. Variable: A concept that can take on different values; the term scientists apply to something they think influences (or is influenced by) something else. Verstehen: An approach to the study of social life developed by Max Weber in which sociologists mentally attempt to place themselves in the shoes of other people and identify what they think and how they feel; translates roughly as understanding Max Weber: German sociologist- Many common ideas that we use to understand social life have their origin in the work of Weber, including bureaucracy, lifestyle, the protestant ethic and charisma. He said that a critical aspect of the sociological enterprise is the study of intentions, values, beliefs and attitudes that underlie peoples behavior. He used the word Verstehen in describing his approach and contributed his notions of the ideal type and a value free sociology. CHAPTER TWO Aggregate: A collection of anonymous individuals who are in one place at the same time. Category: A collection of people who share a characteristic that is deemed to be of social significance. Culture: The social heritage of a people; those learned patterns for thinking, feeling, and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next, including the embodiment of these patterns in material items. Folkways: Norms people do not deem to be of great importance and to which they exact less stringent conformity. Functional Alternatives: Functional Prerequisites (AGIL): Adaptation Goal attainment Integration Latent pattern maintenance Group: Two or more people who share a feeling of unity and who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction. Institutions: The principal instruments whereby the essential tasks of living are organized, directed, and executed. Latent pattern maintenance: Midrange functionalism: Mores: Norms to which people attach a good deal of importance and exact strict conformity. Norms: Social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior in given situations. Role: A set of expectations (rights and duties) that define the behavior that people view as appropriate or inappropriate for the occupant of a status. Sanctions: Social Structure: The interweaving of peoples interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns. Society: A group of people who live within the same territory and share a common culture. Status: A position within a group or society; a location in a social structure. Symbols: Acts or objects that have come to be socially accepted as standing for something else. Values: Broad ideals regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share. CHAPTER 3 Conditioning: A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior determine the probability of its future occurrence. Constructed Reality: Covert Action: Dramaturgical Approach: The sociological perspective associated with Erving Goffman that views the performances staged in a theater as an analytical analogy and tool for depicting social life. Game: in the game stage children assume many roles. Individuals must take into account the roles of many people, and children must become familiar with the expectations that hold for a variety of roles if they are to play their own roles successfully. (think team sports at a young age) Generalized Other: The term George H. Mead applied to the social unit that gives individuals their unity of self. The attitude of the generalized other is the attitude of the larger community. Erving Goffman: Erving Goffman pointed out that only by influencing other peoples ideas of us can we hope to predict or control what happens to us. Consequently, we have a stake in presenting ourselves to others in ways that will lead them to view us in a favorable light, a process Goffman calls impression management. Goffman introduced the dramaturgical approach. I: Imitation: Impression Management: the term Erving Goffman applied to the process whereby we present ourselves to others in ways that will lead them to view us in a favorable light. Impulse: Isolated Children: dont develop as quickly Me: George H. Mead: George Herbert Mead contended that we gain a sense of selfhood by acting towards ourselves in much the same fashion that we act towards others. According to Mead, children typically pass through the three stages in developing a full sense of selfhood: the play stage, in which the child plays roles modeled on a significant other; the game stage; and the generalized other stage. Object: a person or thing with reference to the impression made on the mind or the feeling or emotion elicited in an Play: see Erving Goffman Reflexive Behavior: Actions through which people observe, interpret, evaluate, communicate with, and attempt to control themselves. Self: The set of concepts we use in defining who we are. Significant Other: The term George H. Mead applied to a social model, usually an important person in an individuals life. Social Learning Theory: If people observe positive, desired outcomes in the observed behavior, they are more likely to model, imitate, and adopt the behavior themselves. Social Processes: Social Self: Social Settings: Subject: Socialization: A process of social interaction by which people acquire the knowledge, attitudes, values and behaviors essential for effective participation in society. Thomas Theorem: The notion that our defenitions influence our construction of reality; as stated by William I. Thomas and Dorothy S. Thomas: if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences. CHAPTER 13 Acting Crowd: An excited, volatile collection of people who are engaged in rioting, looting, or other forms of aggressive behavior in which established norms carry little weight. Circular Reaction: Collective Behavior: Ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that develop among a large number of people and that are relatively spontaneous and unstructured. Common Objects: Contagion Theory: An approach to crowd behavior that emphasizes the part played in crowd settings by rapidly communicated and uncritically accepted feelings, attitudes and actions. Conventional Crowd: A number of people who have assembled for some specific purpose and who typically act in accordance with established norms, such as people attending a baseball game or concert. Convergence Theory: An approach to crowd behavior stating that a crowd consists of a highly unrepresentative body of people who assemble because they share the same predispositions. Core Regions: Crowds: A temporary, relatively unorganized gathering of people who are in close physical proximity. Cultural Lag: The view that immaterial culture must constantly catch up with material culture, resulting in an adjustment gap between the two forms of culture. Diffusion: The process by which culture traits spread from one social unit to another. Emergent Norms Theory: An approach to crowd behavior stating that crowd members evolve new standards for behavior in a crowd setting and then enforce the expectations in the manner of norms. Emotional Peak: Fads: a folkway that lasts for a short time and enjoys acceptance among only a segment of the population. Focus: Generalized Belief: General Social Movement: Ideology: A set of ideas that provides individuals with conceptions of the purposes of a social movement, a rationale for the movements existence, an indictment of existing conditions, and a design for action. Innovation: Institutional Penetration: Moderates: Modernization: The process by which a society moves from traditional or pre-industrial social and economic arrangements to those characteristic of industrial societies. New Elite: Peripheral Regions: Personal Unrest: Pragmatists: Reform Movements: A social movement that persues changes that will implement the existing value scheme of a society more adequately. Resistance Movements: A social movement that arises to block change or eliminate a previously instituted change. Revolutionary Movements: A social movement what advocates the replacement of a societys existing value scheme. Social Change: Fundamental alterations in the patterns of culture, structure and social behavior over time. Social Control: A counter determinant that prevents, interrupts, deflects or inhibits the accumulation of the other factors. (I.e. unrest) Social Movements: a more or less persistent and organized effort on the part of a relatively large number of people to bring about or resist change. Social Revolution: The overthrow of a societys state and class structures and the fashioning of new social arrangements. Social Unrest: Specific Social Movements (groups) Spontaneous Behavior: Trade Empires: Value Added Approach: The idea that each step in the production process-from raw materials to the finished product- increases the economic value of manufactured goods. World System: An approach that views development as involving an unequal exchange between core and periphery nations, with development at the former end of the chain coming at the cost of underdevelopment at the other end. ...
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