heimler 5.docx - TECHNOLOGY in the Industrial Age[AP World...

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TECHNOLOGY in the Industrial Age [AP World History] Unit 5 Topic 5 (Heimler’s History 5.5) First Industrial Rev The First Industrial Revolution was from roughly the mid-eighteenth century to the mid- nineteenth century. It incorporated major advancements in steam, iron, and textiles. Due to the steam engine, coal was the chief natural resource that initiated this transformation. Towards the beginning of the First Industrial Revolution, James Watt discovered that since heating water (namely, by burning coal) produced steam, the steam could be put under pressure in an engine to push a piston to turn the wheel. As a result, the steam engine was invented. This was instrumental to the technological, political, and economic transformation of the First Industrial Revolution. Previously, factories relied on the water frame, so they had to be constructed near power sources. After this advent, with a steam engine and sufficient coal, factories could be built in virtually any area. This aided the development of textile factories, a crucial part of the First Industrial Revolution. Hence, factories were on the rise. In addition, transportation was revolutionized. Since the steam engine could power boats, this invention eliminated any hindrances from sailing upstream or against the wind. This led to safer, more efficient trade; thus, trade in all industrialized nations increased. In addition, the steam engine gave way for another hallmark of the First Industrial Revolution, the locomotive (train). This vehicle could carry massive amounts of goods across long distances. Soon, railroads emerged. In Russia, the Trans- Siberian Railroad a railroad spanning the enormous country of Russia allowed for flourishing trade with eastern states such as China. The United States also completed a large railroad, the Trans-Continental Railroad. This effected a surge in domestic trade; the eastern and western halves of the country were forever connected. It also facilitated large migrations of people from the eastern to the western side of the country and vice versa. Second Industrial Rev The Second Industrial Revolution took place after the First Industrial Revolution. It focused on numerous industries: steel, gas, and communications. For instance, the steel industry became more important to industrialized nations after the Bessemer Process was created. In the 1850s, Sir Henry Bessemer discovered that blasting hot iron with air removes impurities, producing steel. This allowed for the mass production of steel. By the mid-1800s, oil wells were already on the rise. The abundance of raw oil could be refined and separated into kerosene and gasoline. Kerosene could power lamps, but gasoline ultimately became the primary benefit of oil extraction. During the Second Industrial Revolution, the internal combustion engine was developed, which used ignited gasoline to push pistons and pull cranks. This revolutionized power generation and freed people from the hardest manual labor. Equally important, it made

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