Study guide for test 2

Study guide for test 2 - Chapter 9 Nature/nurture debate...

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Chapter 9 Nature/nurture debate -John Locke – nurture, empiricist, Tabula Rasa: The blank slate -Jean Rouseau – Nature, kids learn things without adults’ help -Arnold Gesell – Nature, motor skills learned in sequence, maturation -John Watson – Nurture, nothing is inborn -Jean Piaget – Both, stages of cognitive development, babies are just as smart as adults, they undergo qualitative not quantitative changes Development – encompasses both maturation & behavior and mental processes learned from the environment Maturation – natural growth or change that unfolds in a fixed sequence independent of the environment Prenatal development -chromosomes – long, thin structures in ALL cells that provide genetic info in the form of genes -genes – heredity units that contain bio instructions providing a blueprint for physical development -deoxyribonucleic acid – molecular structure of a gene that provides the genetic code -mitosis – duplication of cells where copied cell contains copies of all 23 pairs of chromosomes -meiosis – cell division which leaves cells with 23 single chromosomes -ova – egg cell -zygote – fertilized cell -embryo – cells that the dividing zygote has created -fetus - developing individual from 3 rd month after conception until birth -teratogens – harmful chemicals that can cause birth defects in the fetus -critical period – an interval during which certain kinds of growth must occur if development is to occur normally Jean Piaget -schemas – mental images, pre-conceived notions -assimilation – application of existing schemas to new info -accommodation – changing of existing schemas to accommodate new info when it doesn’t fit existing schemas -Stages of Cognitive development – Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operations, Formal operations --object permanence – the knowledge that an object exists even though it is not seen of felt (Sensorimotor) --conservation – recognition that number, volume or weight stay the same despite change in size (Concrete) --anthropomorphizing – giving human characteristics to non-human things (Pre-Operational) --egocentrism – belief that everyone shares personal view of the world (Pre-Operational) --theory of mind – ppl can think on their own and their thoughts are their own (Pre-Operational) Attachment – a deep, affectionate, close and enduring relationship a baby has with a person it has shared many experiences with -Harlow monkey studies – monkeys preferred comforting, non-nurturing mothers in times of scary contact and overall -the Strange Situation – showed differences in children’s attachments -types of attachment – SECURE: baby is OK with mother being gone for short periods INSECURE AVOIDANT: ignores mother INSECURE AMBIVALENT: upset when mother leaves but is angry with mother when she returns -effects in later life – forms how people will conduct personal relationships Parenting styles
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Study guide for test 2 - Chapter 9 Nature/nurture debate...

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