Evolution notes BIO CHP 18

Evolution notes BIO CHP 18 - Process of Evolution...

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Process of Evolution Microevolution This is when certain traits diverge from the average over a certain degree over a long period of time in order to create a new species. These species then undergo changes that lead to Macroevolution. The study and following the changes that take place in a population over time. Allele frequencies changing in a population over time. Population Genetics The distinct genetics of a population, for example, the bio class is a population. We are all the same species, human, and we all share the same characteristics, or genetics, two eyes, ten fingers and toes etc. Genetic Equilibrium A specific trait when a specific allele does not change over time. When the allele frequencies stay the same in a population from generation to generation, you have genetic equilibrium. It is when evolution does not take place and no changes take place. Frequency: p = frequency of dominant q = frequency of recessive p + q = 1 (p+q) (p+q) = 1 p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 Genotype frequencies Dominant homozygous heterozygous Recessive homozygous T= 9/20 = .45 t= 11/20 = .55 -------- 1.00 Population of Penguins – Hardy-Weinberg Principle Long Flippers = F Short Flippers = f 75 FF 32Ff 22ff = Total 129 150 + 32 = 182 44+ 32 = 76 182/258 76/258 p = .70 q = .30 p + q = 1 .7 .30 .7 I .49 I .21 I .3 I .21 I .09 I P 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 .49 + .42 + .09 = 1
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Conditions No mutations Large Population Isolated Equal viability and fertility Random Mating Because this never happens in a human population allele frequencies do change over time and therefore evolution does take place. Processes of Microevolution Mutations – This is the only time that a new trait is produced that has never been seen before -DNA – Mutations take place on DNA molecules -New Traits – Produce new traits in a population -Rare and Random – One organism “chosen” at random -Effects – The environment will decide the effect, be it neutral, good or bad for the population **Population is the level at which evolution occurs** Gene Flow – the movement of alleles from one population to another by means of breeding individuals - Effects on Variation – Variation rises in a population when new, novel features and characteristics enter a population by way of breeding, new and variable characteristics will emerge in the invaded population. Within a population variation increases, but among a population there
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Evolution notes BIO CHP 18 - Process of Evolution...

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