GEOL_1403_Final_Review[1]

GEOL_1403_Final_Review[1] - GEOL 1403 Final Review Chapter...

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GEOL 1403 Final Review Chapter 1 Introduction James Hutton’s hypothesis stating that current geologic processes could be used to explain past geological events: Uniformitariansim The asthenosphere is a: a) A weak zone of the mantle which consisting of solid, heat softened rock. b) A one of magma below the crust. c) A region of the lithosphere which flows due to heat from the earth’s interior. d) A solid, heat softened part of the crust. The Earth’s tectonic plates are composed of: a) The crust. b) The mantle. c) The lithosphere. d) The crust and asthenosphere. Name the 3 types of plate boundaries: Divergent, Convergent, Transform What parts of the earth comprise the lithosphere? Crust and uppermost mantle What are the three types of rocks? How does each form? 1. Igneous- formed from the crystallization of magma. 2. Sedimentary- formed from the weathered products of preexisting rocks transported, deposited, or lithified. 3. Metamorphic- formed by the alteration of preexisting rock deep within the Earth (but still in the solid state) by heat, pressure, and/or chemically active fluids. Solar Nebula Theory: A swirling cloud of dust and gas (the solar nebula) formed. In the center, it was hot and had high pressures where the sun formed. As the outer part of the cloud cooled, solid particles condensed forming planets, moons, and other solid objects. Magmatic Differentiation: Process in which certain minerals separate out from cooling magma. Planetary Differentiation: The separation of the earth into different layers. Chapter 2 Plate Tectonics Note: About 225 million years ago, most of the Earth’s continents were joined together as a supercontinent called Pangea. Note: Most tectonic plates move 1-10 cm/yr. Note: Plate movement over stationary hot spots indicates direction of movement. Continental Drift Hypothesis (Alfred Wegener): States that the continental plates are moving away from each other. 1. Evidence Supporting the Theory: o Fitting of the continents. o Fossil Evidence. o Rock type and structural similarities. o Paleo Climatic Evidence (Ancient climates). The Earth’s Interior: P a g e 1
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1. Crust: Thin Low-Density Composed mostly of silicon and oxygen Solid Cool at surface, hotter at depth 2 Types: Continental (think, low-density) and Oceanic (thin, slightly more dense) 2. Mantle: Solid Intermediate density Composed mostly of silicon, oxygen, iron, and magnesium Hot Consists of many layers (ex: the asthenosphere) 3. Core: Metallic High density Very hot Outer core is liquid Inner core is solid IC may be spinning Types of Plate Boundaries: 1. Convergent: A boundary in which two plates moving together, results in oceanic lithosphere being thrust beneath an overriding plate, eventually to be reabsorbed into the mantle. It can also involve the collision of two continental plates to create a mountain system. a.
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GEOL_1403_Final_Review[1] - GEOL 1403 Final Review Chapter...

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