notes - An awareness of the breadth and depth of resources...

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An awareness of the breadth and depth of resources and approaches to the relationship of music to brain function and development has been the purpose of the  preceding section. Of related interest, and of equal importance in understanding the necessary role that music can play in education is the work of Howard  Gardner, a cognitive psychologist from Harvard University, who developed a Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In his  Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple  Intelligences , published in 1983, he first challenged the commonly held practice of categorizing people by single measures of intelligence and proposed that there  are seven basic intelligences.  In 1991, Gardner published To Open Minds and in 1993  Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice , updating the theory to reflect developments in his thinking.  In Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, Thomas Armstrong describes Gardner’s seven basic intelligences as a framework for educational practice. In a recent  September 16, 1996  Business Week  article, “How Many Smarts Do You Have” and in a Spring, 1996  Scholastic Parent and Child  article, “Your Child’s  Intelligence(s)” an eighth intelligence--Naturalist: The ability to recognize species of plants or animals in one’s environment, was added. For our purposes, we will  limit discussion to the following seven intelligences.  -Linguistic intelligence: The capacity to use words effectively, orally or written.  -Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The capacity to use numbers effectively and to reason well.  -Spatial Intelligence: The ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations upon those perceptions.  -Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feelings and facility in using one’s hands to produce or  transform things.  --Musical Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform, and express musical forms.  --Interpersonal Intelligence: The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people.  --Intrapersonal Intelligence: Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge.  In the January 1997 article, “The Musical Mind”, Gardner was quoted as saying that music might be a special intelligence which should be viewed differently from 
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course MUSC 173 taught by Professor Fairfield during the Spring '08 term at Northern Illinois University.

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notes - An awareness of the breadth and depth of resources...

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