An awareness of the breadth and depth of resources and approaches to the relationship of music to brain function and development has been the purpose of the
preceding section. Of related interest, and of equal importance in understanding the necessary role that music can play in education is the work of Howard
Gardner, a cognitive psychologist from Harvard University, who developed a Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In his
Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple
, published in 1983, he first challenged the commonly held practice of categorizing people by single measures of intelligence and proposed that there
are seven basic intelligences.
In 1991, Gardner published To Open Minds and in 1993
Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice
, updating the theory to reflect developments in his thinking.
In Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, Thomas Armstrong describes Gardner’s seven basic intelligences as a framework for educational practice. In a recent
September 16, 1996
article, “How Many Smarts Do You Have” and in a Spring, 1996
Scholastic Parent and Child
article, “Your Child’s
Intelligence(s)” an eighth intelligence--Naturalist: The ability to recognize species of plants or animals in one’s environment, was added. For our purposes, we will
limit discussion to the following seven intelligences.
-Linguistic intelligence: The capacity to use words effectively, orally or written.
-Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: The capacity to use numbers effectively and to reason well.
-Spatial Intelligence: The ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations upon those perceptions.
-Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feelings and facility in using one’s hands to produce or
--Musical Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform, and express musical forms.
--Interpersonal Intelligence: The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people.
--Intrapersonal Intelligence: Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge.
In the January 1997 article, “The Musical Mind”, Gardner was quoted as saying that music might be a special intelligence which should be viewed differently from