Final Exam Review Guide
Part I. Objective
Indus and Vedic Culture
Location of the Indus Valley culture , northwestern part of India, it
flows into the Arabian Sea (known as Harappan civilization after the
archaeological site it was found), location of the subcontinents earliest literate
culture sometime around 2600 and was trading with Mesopotamia by 2300bc.
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro:
Harappa is the northern city in Punjab and
Mohenjo-Daro is the southern city in Sind.
Mohenjo-Daro is founded on the
banks of the Indus River.
These were the two largest cities in the Harrapan
civilization and they had bronze tools, writing, covered drainage systems, and
diversified social and economic organization.
Both had populations of over 35
thousand, and in both cities the most important part was their sewage system and
wells, they also had cemeteries
To the west was a large, walled citadel.
The town was composed
of main avenues.
The citadel contained the main public buildings.
Daro had a large bath.
Great Bath was the location for rituals and it emphasized
Both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had temples.
Both had a cemetery,
food storage, and private houses.
Most importantly, both systems had a complex
system of covered drains and sewers.
Seals were evidence for trade.
It was a way to keep records of
The whole region used the same kind of seals
Integrated commerce took place throughout the Indus valley.
Aryans were horsemen and cattle herders.
They went to the
Punjab and Indus valley around 1800-1500 B.C.E. in search of grazing land for
They left their homeland, because (1) Great flood of the Caspian
Sea forced them out of the region, (2) There wasn’t enough grazing land, and (3)
the introduction of the horse drawn two-wheeled chariot allowed the cow-herding
culture to become a warrior culture.
Celestial god, like Zeus.
Had become less
important than his children, especially Indra, god of war and the storm.
Compilation of the Vedas. “The body of knowledge concerning verse
The Vedas are virtually the only source of knowledge about ancient
Aryan life, thus the Aryan culture is called “vedic”.
The dates on the Vedas are
from 500B.C.E. to 1700B.C.E.
. The Vedas are ritual, priestly, and speculative, not
They reveal little about events but do offer insight into the
religion, society, values, and thought of Aryans.
depicted as a regal figure sitting on a heavenly throne.
characteristic was his role as guardian of cosmic order, Rita, which was both the
law of nature and the universal moral law or truth. Overseer of moral action.
Represented a transcendental deity, high above.