MMW2%20Final%20Exam%20Review%20Guide - Final Exam Review...

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Final Exam Review Guide Part I. Objective Indus and Vedic Culture 1. Indus Valley: Location of the Indus Valley culture , northwestern part of India, it flows into the Arabian Sea (known as Harappan civilization after the archaeological site it was found), location of the subcontinents earliest literate culture sometime around 2600 and was trading with Mesopotamia by 2300bc. 2. Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro: Harappa is the northern city in Punjab and Mohenjo-Daro is the southern city in Sind. Mohenjo-Daro is founded on the banks of the Indus River. These were the two largest cities in the Harrapan civilization and they had bronze tools, writing, covered drainage systems, and diversified social and economic organization. Both had populations of over 35 thousand, and in both cities the most important part was their sewage system and wells, they also had cemeteries 3. Urban layout: To the west was a large, walled citadel. The town was composed of main avenues. The citadel contained the main public buildings. Mohenjo- Daro had a large bath. Great Bath was the location for rituals and it emphasized hygiene. Both Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro had temples. Both had a cemetery, food storage, and private houses. Most importantly, both systems had a complex system of covered drains and sewers. 4. Stamped Seals: Seals were evidence for trade. It was a way to keep records of commercial transactions. The whole region used the same kind of seals Integrated commerce took place throughout the Indus valley. 5. Aryan Influx: Aryans were horsemen and cattle herders. They went to the Punjab and Indus valley around 1800-1500 B.C.E. in search of grazing land for their livestock. They left their homeland, because (1) Great flood of the Caspian Sea forced them out of the region, (2) There wasn’t enough grazing land, and (3) the introduction of the horse drawn two-wheeled chariot allowed the cow-herding culture to become a warrior culture. 6. Dyaus Pitr: Celestial god, like Zeus. Was father-god. Had become less important than his children, especially Indra, god of war and the storm. 7. Rig Vedas : Compilation of the Vedas. “The body of knowledge concerning verse of praise”. The Vedas are virtually the only source of knowledge about ancient Aryan life, thus the Aryan culture is called “vedic”. The dates on the Vedas are from 500B.C.E. to 1700B.C.E. . The Vedas are ritual, priestly, and speculative, not historical works. They reveal little about events but do offer insight into the religion, society, values, and thought of Aryans. 8. Varuna: depicted as a regal figure sitting on a heavenly throne. Primary characteristic was his role as guardian of cosmic order, Rita, which was both the law of nature and the universal moral law or truth. Overseer of moral action. Represented a transcendental deity, high above.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course MMW 2 taught by Professor Chang during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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MMW2%20Final%20Exam%20Review%20Guide - Final Exam Review...

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