Block 2 Lecture Notes - 2/13 Block 2 Evolution Genetics...

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2/13 Block 2 Evolution Genetics Inherited DNA-Based characteristics Mutations happen Some are negative, some positive Sexual reproduction, inheritance is mixed Dominant and recessive genes Some are carriers for genes Sex-linked characteristics Inheritance happens if: Breeding is successful Offspring survive Offspring then breed Must happen Sexual reproduction generated new individuals with admixtures of genetic material from parents Individuals are similar Share traits of species Share traits of their relatives (near and far) Individuals differ Successful Reproduction requires: Survuival to maturity Supportive environment Meeting challenges for survival
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Right place at right time Evolution Hyper-Ptolemaic view Man as center of universe Gallileo and Copernicus Darwin at the center of a Copernican like revolution Origins of life and man Fossil findings Evolutionary theory is about the natural laws concerning how animals came to be as they are “Creationism” Evolution has blanks and pieces missing Did God create the world through evolution? Data does not explain Darwin “Origin of the Species” 1859 Natural selection Adaptations that increase offspring success are selected Basic level natural selection is about survival Survival of the fittest (Spencer) Evolution story: Starts with reptiles in charge Vision dominated Cold blooded Mammals come along Nocturnal Hearing dominated
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Encephalization quotient- (actual brain size) / (expected brain size) Evolution process: Survival Assortative mating and mutation Environmental challenges High challenges support selection and adaptive significance Love challenges support diversity Sexual selection Mating to produce and support offspring Lamarck’s Theory Inheritance of acquired characteristics Fails for biological evolution Succeeds cultural evolution Darwinian _________ on human behavior? Determinants Our anatomies and physiologies Constraints Emotional expression
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Genotype: Distal: from the eons Proximal: from the family tree Opening Phenotype: Genotype dependence Proximal environmental influences Teratogens Via Epigenesis to Current phentype Lamarck’s revenge Evolutionary Psychology Roots: Comparative psych Sociobiology 2/18 Ontogeny Genetic determinants Genome: 20 – 25K genes What is the level of decisions? Is the genome following thy X or thy Y?
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Genetic Problems Trisomy 21: Down Syndrome Determined early on in development Sex Chromosome related Recessive genes Turner’s Syndrome: X0 Females? Totally? Used to be thought that it was mental retardation (low intelligence) Do well on verbal IQs, poorly on performance IQs Short stature, with short extremities, wide neck Specific genes PKU: Phenylketonuria Lack enzyme which converts Phenylalamine into tyrosine Extra phenylalamine is poisonous to system TAY-SACHS Focal in certain populations Mental retardation Androgen Insensitivity in males Genetically males Phenotypically female Adrenal Hyperplasia in females Adrenals overdevelop in the fetus Overactive in the fetus Female who has been androgenized External genetallia have been masculinized
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Block 2 Lecture Notes - 2/13 Block 2 Evolution Genetics...

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