ch04 - Chapter4: Introduction to Sensation Perception...

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Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception Introduction to Sensation & Perception Understanding Sensation How We See and Hear Our Other Senses Understanding Perception
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Sensation and Perception Sensation ( process of receiving, converting, and transmitting raw sensory information from the external and internal environments to the brain) Perception ( process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information) Represents a continuum from the biological to the psychological
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Sensation Versus Perception The Muller Lyer illusion
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Muller Lyer Illusion People in cultures without buildings have less of an illusion.
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Sensation Vs. Perception Selective attention is important in that it determines which sensations get further processed. Selective attention
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Importance of Sensory receptor Sensory organs contain receptors that receive sensory information from the environment in the form of mechanical, chemical, or light energy; often responds to only a limited range of the environmental energy; no receptor-no perception Ultrasonic frequencies enter the human ear, but result in no transduction, hence no perception of sound.
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Three Aspects of Sensory  Processing 1. Transduction converts energy in the environment into neural impulses. 2. Active process that filters and analyzes incoming sensations before sending on to the brain (selective attention). 3. Almost always logarithmic or exponential processing as opposed to linear.
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Processing (Continued) Johannes Muller Doctrine of specific nerve energies Messages are same; different experiences occur because message is routed to different brain areas Experiments with frog retina
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Thresholds Psychophysics : Testing limits and ability to detect changes Absolute Threshold: smallest amount of a stimulus we can detect (single stimulus presented) Difference Threshold: minimal difference needed to detect a stimulus change; also called the just noticeable difference (JND); two stimuli presented
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Absolute Thresholds: 3 methods Method of Limits Ascending and descending trials Simplest but predictable procedure Method of Constant Stimuli Randomized order; no prediction of procedure Staircase Method Subjects response determines next stimulus value Best for testing changes in sensitivity
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Absolute Thresholds:  common examples Vision Candle flame from 30 miles on clear dark night Audition Watch ticking from 20 feet in quite room Gustation 1 teaspoon sugar in 2 gallons of water Olfaction 1 drop perfume in small house Tactile Bee wing dropped from ½ inch on cheek
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Difference Threshold: minimum change  required to differentiate stimuli Difference Threshold JND Weber’s Law Intensity / Original Intensity = K This means that larger initial stimulus values require larger changes in intensity to make a noticeable difference (JND)
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Relationship between  physical stimulus  magnitude  and psychological  magnitude for sounds Used to generate an ‘equal loudness contour’
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