BRYM LIE SOC+ Chapter 3 - BRYM AND LIE SOC TEXTBOOK NOTES...

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BRYM AND LIE SOC+ TEXTBOOK NOTESAll information is straight from the textbook, “SOC+,” written by Brym and Lie.Chapter 3The ability to learn culture and become human is only a potential.To be actualized, socialization must unleash this potential.Socializationis the process by which people learn their culture.They do so by:oEntering into and disengaging from a succession of roles.oBecoming aware of themselves as they interact with others.A roleis the behavior expected of a person occupying a particular position in society.Study by Rene Spitz:oHe compared babies that were in an orphanage with babies that were in a nursing home attached to a women’s prison.oHe observed that orphans had much less contact with other people and that they were deprived of social stimuli for most of the day.oBecause of this:Orphans were more susceptible to infections and had higher death rates.After 2-3 years, fewer than 8 percent of orphans were walking and talking.Orphans would most likely have an impaired sexual life when they reached maturity.oThe study showed the important of childhood socialization in making us fully human.Without it, most of our human potential remains undeveloped.Adolescents are a particularly turbulent period of rapid self-development.
The crystallization of self-identity during adolescence is just one episode in a lifelong process of socialization.Institutions don’t always work hand in hand to produce happy well-adjusted adults.The development of self-identity is often a difficult and stressful process – and it is becoming more so.Symbolic Interactionist Foundations of Childhood Socialization:Socialization begins soon after birth.Social interaction soon enables infants to begin developing a self-image or sense of self– a set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings.FreudInfants demand immediate gratification but begin to form a self-image when their demands are denied.When their demands are denied, it pushes them towards beginning to sense that their needs differ from their parents and that they have an existence independent from others.After many lessons in self-control, a child eventually develops a sense of what constitutes appropriate behavior and a moral sense of right and wrong.Eventually, personal conscience crystalizes and a psychological mechanism develops that balances the pleasure-seeking and restraining components of the self.Only social interaction can allow the self to emerge.Cooley Cooley introduced the idea of the looking-glass self.When we interact with others, they gesture and react to us.This allows us to imagine how we appear to them.

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