BRYM LIE SOC+ Chapter 6 - BRYM AND LIE SOC TEXTBOOK NOTES...

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BRYM AND LIE SOC+ TEXTBOOK NOTESAll information is straight from the textbook, “SOC+,” written by Brym and Lie.Chapter 6Social stratificationis the way society is organized in layers or strata.PATTERNS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITYWealth is what you own – it is assets minus liabilities.Wealth enhances your sense of well-being, gives you more political influence and even improves your health.From 1984-2005, the biggest winners were the richest families.oThe net worth of the richest quintile increased by more than 64 percent.The second-poorest quintile was, on average, more than 11 percent poorer.The rich are getting richer while the poor are getting poorer.INCOMEThe average worker is more skilled and is using more sophisticated technology to produce more goods and services.$4.40 of every $10 earned in Canada in 2007 was earned by the richest 20 percent of families.The distribution of income has become more unequal since 1976.All quintiles earned a smaller share of total national income in 2007 than in 1976 – except for the top quintile, which earned 3.2 percent more.The income gaps have been widening for more than three decades.POVERTY AND ITS FEMINIZATIONEXPLANATIONS OF INCOME INEQUALITYSteve Nash, Jim Carrey, Mike Weir are Canadians whose success on the world stage had provided them with substantial earnings.
oThe principal reason for their excellence is because of their genes.oOn the other side of the spectrum, those with genetically caused disabilities earn little to nothing because of their bad genes.For the vast majority of people, genes play only a minor role in determining income.Effort alone does not result in high income.The importance of education continues to grow.Human capital is investment in education and training.There is clearly a link between schooling and incomesEconomic rewards vary even for people with the same experience and type of legal practice.The reason for this partly is that people possess different amounts of social capital.oSocial capital refers to people’s networks or connections.oIndividuals are more likely to succeed if they have strong bonds of trust, cooperation, mutual respect, and obligation with well-positioned individuals or families.Another reason is that people possess different amounts of cultural capital.oCultural capitalcomprises of the set of social skills people have: their ability to impress others, to use tasteful languge and images effectively, and thus to influence and persuade people.Both concepts emphasize being part of the right “social club.”Both also share the common idea that families higher in the social hierarchy enjoy more capital of all types.

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