EXAM II PCB 3134.docx - EXAM II PCB 3134 ORGANELLES AND...

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EXAM II PCB 3134 ORGANELLES AND CELLULAR TRAFFICKING I. Endomembrane System a. Components of the Endomembrane System i. The endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex are sites for protein synthesis, processing, and sorting ii. Endosomes carry and sort material brought into the cell iii. Lysosomes digest ingested material and unneeded cellular components iv. These (and the vesicles that connect them) form the endomembrane system II. The Endoplasmic Reticulum a. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous network of flattened sacs, tubules, and vesicles through the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell b. The membrane-bound sacs are called ER cisternae , and the space inside them is the ER lumen c. Rough and Smooth ER Are Easily Distinguished i. Rough ER 1. Studded with ribosomes 2. Large, flattened sheets ii. Smooth ER 1. No ribosomes 2. Smooth, tubular structures iii. All eukaryotic cells have both rough and smooth ER 1. Size of each varies based on cellular function d. Smooth ER Is Involved in Non-Protein Metabolic Reactions and Functions i. Drug detoxification 1. Drug detoxification often involves hydroxylation , catalyzed by a member of the cytochrome P-450 family of proteins, also called monooxygenases 2. Adding hydroxyl groups to hydrophobic drugs increases their solubility, making them easier to excrete from the body a. RH + NAD(P)H + H + + O 2

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