# Bio265l_document_W06_Worksheet_Respiratory System & Lung Volumes (2)-1.docx

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W06 Worksheet: Respiratory System & Lung Volumes Follow the instructions below very carefully. Many of the items in this assignment require reading, or videos, or something else to do. Each question has either a text box that can be filled out or a box that can be checked to show completion. Be sure to type out your answers completely and expand the text boxes if you need the additional space. Question 1 --- 2 points Lung Volumes The process of moving air in and out of the lungs is called ventilation. Air movement is driven by changes in pressure between the lungs and the atmosphere. The ideal gas law describes the relationship between volume and pressure: P = nRT/V (P= pressure; T= absolute temperature; V= volume; n= number of moles of the gas, and R= the universal gas constant). This law demonstrates that the pressure of a gas is inversely related to the volume. That is, in a closed container, if you increase volume, pressure decreases, and if you decrease volume, pressure increases. Think of what happens to the pressure in a syringe if you put your finger over the opening, and then move the plunger back to increase volume or push it forward to decrease volume. In the respiratory system, movements of the respiratory muscles change the volume of the thoracic cavity thus decreasing and increasing pressure and causing air to move between the atmosphere and the lungs. Measurement of the volume of air that moves in and out of the lungs under various conditions can provide information about the functioning and the health of the respiratory system. Spirometry is a technique used to measure various lung volumes and capacities and can also measure ventilation as a function of time. The following definitions should help you through this lab: Tidal volume (TV): Volume of air moved into or out of the lungs during breathing. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV): Maximal volume that can be inspired from end-inspiratory level. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV): Maximal volume that can be exhaled from end-expiratory position. Vital capacity (VC): Maximal volume expired after maximal inspiration (IRV + TV + ERV). Residual volume (RV): Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation. Total lung capacity (TLC): Volume in the lungs at maximal inflation (IRV + TV + ERV + RV). Forced expiratory volume (1 second) (FEV 1 ): The volume of air exhaled under forced conditions in the first second.
Watch Lung Volumes Explained ( 3:15 mins; Lung Volumes Explained ; links to an external site) that explains the volumes above. Read the article, ” Obstructive and Restrictive Lung Disease ,” (links to an external site) then answer the following questions. In your own words, explain the difference between obstructive and restrictive lung disease.