Nutrition classnotes

Nutrition classnotes - [Class August 28] -Mammals distinct...

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[Class August 28] -Mammals distinct from other animals b/c nourish young on milk produced with mammary glands -Can’t use all nutritional info from rats for humans Fundamentals of Nutrition: Comprehensive study of specific nutrients in terms of their availability, function, and utilization in mammalian species [most researched mammal: rat] [most researched animal: chicken] “Bloom’s Taxonomy” 1. Creating 2. Evaluating 3. Analyzing 4. Applying 5. Understanding 6. Remembering Nutrition: The effect of food on living organisms Food Science: The study of material to be taken into the body for use in the vital processes Dietetics: Study and regulation of the human diet (mixture of foods ingested) Nutrient: A substance essential to life that must be supplied by food History of Nutrition Naturalistic Period (400 B.C.E.-1750 A.D.) Foods used as cosmetics, medicines for wounds, or taboos and magical substances During 16 th century (1500’s) scurvy became prevelant in sailors bc could not take fresh fruits, had vitamin C deficiency (no vit C in meats, grains, beans) Blamed on bad air, water, people or parts of the world rather than food 1535-Jacques Cartier’s sailors developed scurvy, local Indians gave them tea from evergreen foliage which cured it o Arbor vitae—“tree of life” (northern white cedar) 1600’s-Sanctorius weighed self before & after meal, noticed gained all weight of food but lost weight as he stood on scale due to “insensible perspiration” o partially right-weight loss was from water and CO 2 loss 1747- James Lind o physician in british navy, performed 1 st experiment in nutrition o gave two sailors with scurvysea water, oil of vitrol, vinegar and limes, those given limes recovered Didn’t know vitamin C cures scurvy b/c vit. C not discovered until 1930’s
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After lime discovery, all British sailors had to eat limes each day on voyages, became known as “limeys” Chemical Period (1750-1900) First elements discovered in 1700’s: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen 1770-1796- Antoine Lavoisier discovered metabolism o used guinea pigs, involved respiration, oxidation, and calorimity o Food + Oxygen --------> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy o Measured heat given off by animals, used chamber containing ice, place animal in ice and measure rate at which ice melted—credited with first calorimeter o Guillotined in French revolution in 1796 1800’s-chem makeup of carbs, fats and proteins discovered, all contained C, H, O and protein contained N o 1871—Dumas : physician in france in charge of baby’s hospital : babies starving bc germans surrounded paris and didn’t allow food in : to save babies Dumas tried to make synthetic milk from carbs, fats, protein and minerals…infants died, so thought something missing from milk didn’t know what o 1881—Lunin (Germany) : fed mice synthetic milk made of casein (milk protein), lactose (milk sugar) and minerals : mice died, those fed real milk lived
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Nutrition classnotes - [Class August 28] -Mammals distinct...

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