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**Unformatted text preview: **+-= +-= + x a x x x a x dr r x r a Substitution yields the result . 1 2 2 2 2 +-= x a x a GMm F The second term in brackets can be written as 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 ) ) ( 1 ( ) ( 1 1 - + = +-x a x a x a if x >> a , where the binomial approximation (or first-order Taylor series expansion) has been used. Substitution of this into the above form gives , 2 x GMm F as it should....

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