Biology Review Chapters 32-33

Biology Review Chapters 32-33 - Biology Review Chapters...

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Biology Review Chapters 32-33 Ch. 32 - What are the functions of the skeleton? - What are the two types of bones and how do they differ? 1. compact bone : dense, has canals and rings for the nerves and blood vessels 2. spongy bone : located in the ends of the bones, very strong with lots of pocketed open spaces – also where red marrow can be found - What is bone marrow, what types are there, and what are their functions? Bone marrow is where blood cells are formed. 1. red marrow : major site of blood cell formation, fills spaces in spongy bone 2. yellow marrow : primarily fat, but can be converted into red marrow in a time of severe blood loss - How is bone grown and repaired? - What are osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes? 1. osteoclasts : cells that break down bone 2. osteoblasts : bone-forming cells that secrete components of the matrix 3. osteocytes : are osteoblasts that become imprisoned in tiny gaps in their own secretions - What is endochondral ossification? It is a type of bone formation, primarily in long bones. - How do bones change during development from the embryo to the adult? In the embryo, bones have cartilage not only in the ends, but also in the shaft. Throughout time, the cartilage is primarily in the knobby ends. - What is a joint, what types are there, and how do they differ? - A joint is an area of contact or near-contact between bones. - Types 1. Fibrous/Immovable : made of dense, connective tissue. (do not allow much movement) 2. Cartilaginous : bones are connected by cartilage (allow some movement, not as much as synovial)
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3. Synovial : most mobile, contain a space for synovial fluid - What is a ligament? Straps of dense connective tissue at many joints, they attach bones to each other
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Biology Review Chapters 32-33 - Biology Review Chapters...

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