PSYC 3130 Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Non-experimental research does not manipulate conditions nor randomly assign Cannot explain causal relationship

PSYC 3130 Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Non-experimental...

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Test 2 Non-experimental research – does not manipulate conditions nor randomly assign Cannot explain causal relationship Phenomenology – describes individuals immediate experiences – does not explain Personal experience is the data source Often used for hypothesis generation Exploratory research Imposes less restrain on what data is collected May use lots of measures to determine variables of interest Open-ended questions Naturalistic observation Roots in o Anthropology o Study of animal behavior Researcher does not intervene – usually inconspicuous Data: o Primarily qualitative o Researcher keeps detailed field notes Example – Scribner’s research on practical thinking o Observed problem solving strategies of workers PROS: o Can generate new hypothesis based on observations o Goal is to provide accurate picture of what occurred in the setting o Can look at environmental factors o Best for exploring complex behaviors o May not need informed consent if anonymity is not threatened LIMITATIONS: o Difficult to test hypothesis o Lots of data to record (setting, players, events) o Limited control Participant-observer studies – participant becomes an active insider in group of interest (type of naturalistic observation) PROS: o Closer relationships with subjects, subjects can be more revealing o Can gather more information LIMITATIONS: o Researcher may lose objectivity/ have or develop a bias o Ethical & privacy concerns Of particular interest: whether observations are made in a public place with no expectations of privacy
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Invasion of privacy example – Henle & Hubbell, hid under college students’ beds to hear conversations Systemic observation = specific behaviors in particular setting Researcher has developed hypothesis prior to study Quantifiable observations – coding system needed to measure behaviors Case studies = description of an individual by an outside observer Observational method of a person, or sometimes a setting Not always naturalistic observation – can be made by interpreting others observations Psychobiography – researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual (usually famous) Good source of future hypothesis Can study rare phenomenon o Bruce/Brenda case Referred to as John/ Joan case o Synesthesia – a stimulus in one sense elicits involuntary sensation in another LIMITATIONS o Not always generalizable to other individuals o Relies on memory Bias in interpretation or perception Lack of ability to remember Archival research – use previously compiled information to answer new questions Useful in examining… o Populations o Trends over time Statistical records – collected by many public and private organizations o Most extensive set – US Census Bureau Survey archives – consist of data from surveys that are stored and available to be analyzed by researchers o
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