Test 2 Non-experimental research – does not manipulate conditions nor randomly assign • Cannot explain causal relationship Phenomenology – describes individuals immediate experiences – does not explain • Personal experience is the data source • Often used for hypothesis generation Exploratory research • Imposes less restrain on what data is collected • May use lots of measures to determine variables of interest • Open-ended questions Naturalistic observation • Roots in o Anthropology o Study of animal behavior • Researcher does not intervene – usually inconspicuous • Data: o Primarily qualitative o Researcher keeps detailed field notes • Example – Scribner’s research on practical thinking o Observed problem solving strategies of workers • PROS: o Can generate new hypothesis based on observations o Goal is to provide accurate picture of what occurred in the setting o Can look at environmental factors o Best for exploring complex behaviors o May not need informed consent if anonymity is not threatened • LIMITATIONS: o Difficult to test hypothesis o Lots of data to record (setting, players, events) o Limited control Participant-observer studies – participant becomes an active insider in group of interest (type of naturalistic observation) • PROS: o Closer relationships with subjects, subjects can be more revealing o Can gather more information • LIMITATIONS: o Researcher may lose objectivity/ have or develop a bias o Ethical & privacy concerns Of particular interest: whether observations are made in a public place with no expectations of privacy
Invasion of privacy example – Henle & Hubbell, hid under college students’ beds to hear conversations Systemic observation = specific behaviors in particular setting • Researcher has developed hypothesis prior to study • Quantifiable observations – coding system needed to measure behaviors Case studies = description of an individual by an outside observer • Observational method of a person, or sometimes a setting • Not always naturalistic observation – can be made by interpreting others observations • Psychobiography – researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual (usually famous) • Good source of future hypothesis • Can study rare phenomenon o Bruce/Brenda case Referred to as John/ Joan case o Synesthesia – a stimulus in one sense elicits involuntary sensation in another • LIMITATIONS o Not always generalizable to other individuals o Relies on memory Bias in interpretation or perception Lack of ability to remember Archival research – use previously compiled information to answer new questions • Useful in examining… o Populations o Trends over time • Statistical records – collected by many public and private organizations o Most extensive set – US Census Bureau • Survey archives – consist of data from surveys that are stored and available to be analyzed by researchers o
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 8 pages?
- Spring '12
- Experimental Psychology, researcher, naturalistic observation, response rate