Test 1 Review Guide - History 102 Review Guide Ch 18 Reconstruction North South Morrill Land Grant Act(1862 conveyed to each state 30,000 acres of

Test 1 Review Guide - History 102 Review Guide Ch 18...

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History 102 Review Guide Ch 18: Reconstruction: North & South Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) – conveyed to each state 30,000 acres of federal land per member of Congress from the state, the proceeds from the sale of which went to create colleges of “agriculture and mechanical arts” Freedmen’s Bureau – established to “provisions, clothing and fuel” to relieve “destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children”; was the 1 st federal experiment in social welfare John Wilkes Booth – actor; assassinated Lincoln; shot in the back in a barn by Union soldiers Thirteenth Amendment – ended slavery *Fourteenth Amendment – passed by Congress in 1866 and was ratified by the state in 1868; first section affirms 4 principle: it reaffirms the state and federal citizenship of all persons – regardless of race, it forbids any state to “abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens”, to deprive any person “of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”, or to “deny any person…the equal protection of the laws”; importance: added the due process clause Fifteenth Amendment – guaranteeing the right to vote for all males regardless of race Andrew Johnson – President from 1865-1868; from Tennessee; granted leniency to the South; clashed with Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens (wanted equality for all); becomes the 1 st President to be impeached; impeached by the House; comes 1 vote short of Senate impeachments Black codes – Southern rules/laws imposed on African-Americans; predecessor to “separate but equal” Thaddeus Stevens – leader of the Radical Republicans; wanted equality for all, even African-Americans Scalawags – southern white Republicans Carpetbaggers – northerners who rushed south with all their belongings to reap political spoils; usually were Union veterans who had arrived by 1865 drawn south by the hope of economic opportunity Greenbacks – currency used during the Civil War; $432 million in greenbacks were issued and afterwards went back to “hard money” which was money backed by gold; “hard money” endorsed by Grant
Ku Klux Klan – group of radicals who wanted to keep African Americans subservient to white people in the South Enforcement Act (1870-71) – acts which were meant to protect black voters; 3 acts; 1 st levied penalties against anyone who interfered with any citizen’s right to vote; 2 nd placed the election of congressmen under surveillance by federal election supervisors and marshals; 3 rd outlawed characteristic activities of the Klan – forming conspiracies, wearing disguises, resisting law officer, and intimidating government officials Credit Mobilier scandal – construction company that had milked the Union Pacific Railroad for exorbitant fees to line the pockets of insiders who controlled both firms; UP shareholders left holding the bag; transpired before Grant’s election but touched a number of prominent Republicans who had been given shares of Credit Mobilier stock in exchange for votes

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