PSY 101 exam #2 STUDY GUIDE FINAL - STUDY GUIDE Exam 2 1...

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STUDY GUIDE Exam 2 1. What is the “contrast effect” and what does it predict? Contrast Effect: In operant conditioning, the negative contrast effect is evident when an attempt to reinforce a particular behavior through reward, when the rewards are finally withdrawn or reduced the subject is even less likely to exhibit that behavior than if he/she had never been rewarded o The theory is that the subject will view the task as work, for which he is only temporarily rewarded, rather than enjoyable or an end in itself such as play Ex: Rewarding children for reading may be counter- productive in the long run, as they may view it as a chore Conversely, the positive contrast effect is that when rewards are increased, the subject shows an even greater frequency of the behavior than subjects who had been rewarded with the higher quantity all along 2. How are culturally appropriate behaviors learned? Culturally acceptable behaviors are learned through observation o Ex: Many cultures have very different customs so often times people in the work place are shown films that depict good behavioral models and then are asks to participate in a role playing exercise to test what they retained from the film 3. Give some examples of observational learning. Can animals learn by observation? (Pg. 184) Observational Learning is a form of learning in which organisms learn by observing the behaviors––and the consequences of the behaviors––of those around them. o Ex: Learning how to make wine by observing somebody who already knows how to do it o Ex: Learning how to skateboard by watching somebody who is good at it Animals can learn through observation, however, there are a number of variables which have confounded the study of observational learning in animals.
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o One of these is the Venus Effect in which animals are sexual stimulated by the model, which interferes with the ability to observe behavior thereby limiting the ability to make associations based on the behavior of the model 4. How does your text define learning? (Pg. 160) Learning : Any relatively permanent change in behavior, or behavior potential produced by experience. 5. Describe classical conditioning and operant conditioning. (Pg. 160- 184) Classical Conditioning : A form of learning in which two stimulus events become associated in such a way that the occurrence of one event reliably predicts the occurrence of the other. o In Classical Conditioning, a physical event–termed a stimulus––that initially does not elicit a particular response gradually acquires the capacity to do so because of repeated pairing with a stimulus that can elicit the response It is the basis for many learned fears and also helps explain how we acquire aversions to certain foods or beverages Plays a part in drug tolerance and withdrawal and even racial or ethnic prejudice Operant Conditioning : A form of learning in which organisms acquire associations between behaviors and the stimuli that precede
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PSY 101 exam #2 STUDY GUIDE FINAL - STUDY GUIDE Exam 2 1...

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