Understanding Family Violence

G marriage divorce laws contraception programs do not

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Unformatted text preview: married; adoption laws; age restrictions on marriage; incest; interracial marriage Family Policy •  Broad set of laws and programs influencing family structure and behavior –  Family policy is much more than welfare •  Family policy sets frameworks for everybody •  E.g. marriage & divorce laws, contraception –  Programs do not only benefit the poor •  Also powerful (and expensive) programs primarily targeted at middle & upper class families •  E.g. tax policies: joint filing, child care deduction, mortgage deduction Family Policy Domains •  Broadly differentiate between policies that affect •  Family formation •  Family dissolution no fault divorce, child custody, alimony •  Fertility abortions regulation; incest; sagitary rape law; arti! cial insemination •  Gender roles anti-discrimination laws; maternity leave law; tax laws •  (Much overlap) 4 early 20th century, spread knowledge of contraception Griswold v. CT granted birth control for only married b/c said they shud be the only ones having sex State Regulation of Fertility •  Fertility –  Contraception been around for a long time •  Increasingly tolerated since 1930s (Margaret Sanger) •  Griswold v CT 1965: birth control for married couples •  Eisenstadt v Baird 1972: birth control for unmarried couples •  Carey v Population Services 1977: birth control for minors –  Abortion largely illegal until 1973 •  Roe v Wade 1973: (conditional) constitutional right to abortion conditional b/c can't abort at at any stage –  Availability of contraception and abortion led to decline in teenage birth rate Welfare (1935-1996) •  Social Security Act (1935) –  Act primarily addressed at men •  Enshrines family wage system, •  Forces women out of federal employment –  Creates AFDC (Aid for families with dependent children) •  •  •  •  = “Welfare” Entitlement program No time limit on benefits First widows, later all poor families w/ children, in the end predominantly divorced/never married women w/ children •  First no work requirement (supporting family wage system, breadwinner/homemaker ideal), then gradually work requirements for recipients 5 Aid for Poor Families Today •  Welfare Reform 1996 –  PRWORA creates TANF to replace AFDC –  Block grant –  Must work w/in two years of receipt (significant blow to breadwinner/homemaker ideology) –  Caused massive reduction in welfare roles, increase in labor force participation of poor mothers, generally small increase in earnings –  5 year lifetime limit on assistance •  Limits begin to take hold – recent stop-gap extensions •  Earned income tax credit (EITC) –  Income subsidy for low earners (working poor) w/ children –  Costliest program for poor families, bigger than TANF Aid for Poor Families Today •  Notice ideological inconsistencies in incentives –  Tax code rewards breadwinner homemaker model –  PRWORA & EITC encourage mother’s labor force participation => Different models for different classes! 6 Big Questions •  What family forms should the government encourage? •  Marriage ideal vs independence •  Should there be any interference? •  What gender roles should the government encourage •  Female labor force participation vs breadwinner/homemaker and motherhood 7...
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This note was uploaded on 08/17/2013 for the course SOC 120 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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