Chapter 21 outline: States and Empires in Meso and North America - I States and empires in Mesoamerica and North America A The Toltec and the Mexica

Chapter 21 outline: States and Empires in Meso and North America

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I. States and empires in Mesoamerica and North America A. The Toltec and the Mexica A.1. Toltecs emerge in the ninth and tenth centuries after the collapse of Teotihuacan A.1.a. Established large state, powerful army mid-tenth to the mid-twelfth century A.1.b. Tula was the Toltec capital city and center of trade A.1.c. Maintained close relations with societies of the Gulf coast and the Maya A.2. Toltec decline after twelfth century A.2.a. Civil strife at Tula, beginning in 1125 A.2.b. Nomadic invaders after 1175 A.3. Arrival of the Mexica (or Aztecs) in central Mexico mid-thirteenth century A.3.a. Warriors and raiders A.3.b. Built capital city, Tenochtitlan (modern Mexico City), about 1345 A.3.c. Developed productive chinampas style of agriculture A.4. Fifteenth century, Aztecs launched military campaigns against neighboring societies A.4.a. Conquered and colonized Oaxaco in southwestern Mexico A.4.b. Made alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan A.4.c. Built an empire of twelve million people, most of Mesoamerica A.5. Controlled subject peoples with oppressive tribute obligations A.5.a. Empire had no bureaucracy or administration; local administrators enforced tributes A.5.b. Allies did not have standing army A.5.c. Tribute of 489 subject territories flowed into Tenochtitlan B. Mexica society B.1. Most information comes from Spanish sources, recorded after the conquest B.2. Mexica warriors were the elite at the top of a rigid social hierarchy B.2.a. Mostly from the Mexica aristocracy B.2.b. Enjoyed great wealth, honor, and privileges B.3. Mexica women had no public role, but were honored as mothers of warriors B.3.a. Mexica women active in commerce and crafts B.3.b. Primary purpose to bear children: women who died in childbirth celebrated B.4.

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