Chapter 25 outline: Colliding Worlds - Samantha Loh Chapter...

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Samantha Loh Chapter 25 I. Colliding worlds A. The Spanish Caribbean A.1. Indigenous peoples were the Taino A.1.a. Lived in small villages under authority of chiefs A.1.b. Showed little resistance to European visitors A.2. Columbus built the fort of Santo Domingo, capital of the Spanish Caribbean A.2.a. Taino conscripted to mine gold A.2.b. Encomiendas: land grants to Spanish settlers with total control over local people A.2.c. Brutal abuses plus smallpox brought decline of Taino populations B. The conquest of Mexico and Peru B.1. Hernan Cortés B.1.a. Aztec and Inca societies wealthier, more complex than Caribbean societies B.1.b. With 450 men, Cortés conquered the Aztec empire, 1519-1521 B.1.c. Tribal resentment against the Mexica helped Cortés B.1.d. Epidemic disease (smallpox) also aided Spanish efforts B.2. Francisco Pizarro B.2.a. Led a small band of men and toppled the Inca empire, 1532-1533 B.2.b. Internal problems and smallpox aided Pizarro's efforts B.2.c. By 1540 Spanish forces controlled all the former Inca empire C. Iberian empires in the Americas C.1. Spanish colonial administration formalized by 1570 C.1.a. Administrative centers in Mexico and Peru governed by viceroys C.1.b. Viceroys reviewed by audiencias , courts appointed by the king C.1.c. Viceroys had sweeping powers within jurisdictions C.2. Portuguese Brazil: given to Portugal by Treaty of Tordesillas C.2.a. Portuguese king granted Brazil to nobles, with a governor to oversee C.2.b. Sugar plantations by mid-sixteenth century C.3. Colonial American society C.3.a. European-style society in cities, indigenous culture persisted in rural areas C.3.b. More exploitation of New World than settlement C.3.c. Still, many Iberian migrants settled in the Americas, 1500-1800 D. Settler colonies in North America D.1. Foundation of colonies on east coast, exploration of west coast D.1.a.

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