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BTA1_Greece_2.7 - 57 Discuss the differences between...

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57. Discuss the differences between Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic architecture and cite one example of each. There several distinctions between the three main periods of Greek architecture, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic. Archaic Greek temples usually have large bases and short, fat columns. These types of temples mostly employ the Doric order. The plans for these temples are very simple. In general, they include a tri-parte cella with, occasionally, a row of columns in the center to support the roof above. An example, of an Archaic temple is the temple of Apollo at Thermum. Classical Greek temples are somewhat smaller than Archaic temples and contain fewer columns. The columns are also generally taller and more slender. These types of temples were made of limestone and marble and they used either the Doric or Ionic order. The plans of Classical temples are similar to that of the tri-parte cella, however there is no row of center columns. In its place, there are usually either two column rows or a colonnade. Classical Greece understated the architectural definition of a civic space by suggesting enclosure using colonnaded borders on one or two sides only. The best example of a Classical Greek temple is the Parthenon. Hellenistic temples are usually more picturesque than all the other types of temples. They are pretty rather than correct. These types of temples explore more with the visual aspect of the temple. One can find all three column orders in a Hellenistic temple. In the Hellenistic phase, architectural symmetry became important, the space being articulated on three or four sides and an inflected center axis. The Hellenistic planner preferred seamless enclosures entered only through formal gates, thus making the public space self-contained. Also, Archaic and Classical temples each present themselves as an “object in the round.” These two types of temples are self-contained and active, sculptural forces complete in relation to their natural and human-made surroundings. Hellenistic temples, on the other hand, work only one way as the concretization of a sacred procession. One cannot interact freely with it. The Hellenistic temple appears complete in itself. An example of a Hellenistic temple is the temple of Apollo at Didyma.
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58. Compare and contrast the Parthenon and the Erechtheion. Use diagrams to support your discussion. The Erechtheion is a rectangular building with three distinct porches protruding from its main mass and stands in stark contrast to the regular, unified volume of the Parthenon. The Erechtheion is smaller and occupies much lower ground on the Akropolis hill than the Parthenon. Also, the Erechtheion’s southwest porch is supported not by columns, but by   caryatids. A local axis confined to the Akropolis hill itself connects the Parthenon and Erechtheion. Running north south, this axis is perpendicular to the extended east west axis that connects Hymettos to Salamis. Like the east west axis, the north south axis connects history to myth.
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59. Both the temple of Artemis at Ephesos (560-356BC) and the temple of Apollo
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