output - General Chemistry 2 Lecture meets every T and F from 9:10 am 11:00 am Instructor Prof McGregor(Donna Chem 104 Basic course informa3on There are

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Unformatted text preview: General Chemistry 2 Lecture meets every T and F from 9:10 am – 11:00 am Instructor: Prof McGregor (Donna) Chem 104 Basic course informa3on There are 700 students in this lecture! The auditorium is not conducive to student learning CHEM104 is more difficult than CHEM102 All Course Information is available on the course syllabus in the syllabus tab on bb9.1: hKp: Co- Instructors: JusRn Fang, Christopher Farley, Stephanie Geggier, Sasha Kramer, Gabriella Smeureanu, Liz Wright See the Contact Information tab on bb9.1 for information about office hours and email for ALL instructors Course Materials and Grading Textbook (same as 102): Chemistry by Zumdahl, 8th ed. iClicker (same as 102): Available at the bookstore OWL Access Code (same as 102): Available at the bookstore or from cengage.com Course Grade DistribuRon: You will need to put in at least 10- 20 hours of work per week outside of the classroom to do well in this course! 4 In Class exams 300 points Final Exam 200 points OWL Homework 100 points iClicker ques3ons 50 points Recita3on Workshops 50 points TOTAL 700 points It is an inflexible requirement of this course that you take at least three of the four exams. NO makeup exams will be given. Recita3on Workshops In addiRon to lecture – you will each aKend a small recitaRon secRon (MANDATORY) During recitaRon you will work in groups to solve problems – Each workshop is worth 5 points out of a total of 50. We will drop 1 workshop grade. OPEN SECTIONS will occur before every exam. These are opRonal and you may aKend any secRon Take your Workshops seriously! Don’t be afraid to ask quesRons and aKend office hours You may aKend ANY/ALL office hours OWL Homework If you have not already done so you must register yourself on OWL immediately at: (detailed instruc3ons are provided in the syllabus) Assignments for each chapter will post at 9 am the day we start the chapter and will generally be due at 11:59 pm the night before we start a new chapter (or the day aUer an Exam) NO EXTENSIONS WILL BE GRANTED Plan on spending at least 1 hr per day doing OWL OWL Homework Not every testable item will be covered in lecture. Some will only be covered in OWL/Workshop. There are 3 kinds of problems on OWL: •  Required Problems (R): unlimited aWempts with no penalty for incorrect answers. (1 point) •  Extra Credit problems (EC): 5 aWempts to submit the correct answer for extra credit. (1 point) •  OpRonal problem (O): include tutorials and simula3ons. (0 points) You are encouraged to work with others in the class There is no reason not to get 100% on your graded homework. iClicker Informa3on We will be doing Clicker quesRons during lecture. Each lecture will start with a graded Clicker ques3on! In addiRon you must complete at least OLD VERSION 75% of the rest of the in class quesRons to earn your second iclicker point You will get 4 free passes to account for a forgoKen or malfuncRoning iclicker. (We will drop 4 Clicker sessions) There will be NO excuse for a forgoKen or non- funcRoning iclicker. NEW VERSION iClicker Informa3on Take your Clicker quesRons seriously. Your first graded quesRons will be given next week Tuesday! OLD VERSION If you have not already done so you must register your iclicker at: To register you must enter your full name and your Blackboard number (detailed instruc3ons provided on the syllabus) NEW VERSION iClicker Informa3on Take your Clicker quesRons seriously. Your first graded quesRons will be given next week Tuesday! OLD VERSION If you have not already done so you must register your iclicker at: To register you must enter Enter your 20 dand your full name igit your Blackboard number number Blackboard (detailed instruc3ons provided on the syllabus) here! NEW VERSION Learning Goal Analysis One big difference from CHEM102: Instead of Chapter Overviews we will be focusing on specific LEARNING GOALS for each chapter. Before we begin a new chapter you will complete a LEARNING GOAL ANALYSIS (LGA) on Blackboard! This is opRonal and parRcipaRon will be worth 1 EC point per LGA on the upcoming exam. I will link the LEARNING GOALS to OWL, Workshop or Lecture at the beginning of each new lecture. Some Clicker Q’s will be linked to LEARNING GOALS Learning Goal Analysis You must submit your LGA by the indicated deadline (11:59 pm on the night before we begin the chapter) to earn the EC points. Click here to see the Learning Goals for each chapter and complete your LGA Learning Goal Analysis Click on the chapter you want to review the Learning Goals for Learning Goal Analysis Click here to complete your LGA Learning Goal Analysis Complete the LGA for Chap 10/11 by 9 am tomorrow morning to earn your first EC point for Exam 1 CHEM 106 Lab Informa3on We have added a new secRon of Chem 106! As of this morning there are sRll 6 seats available The new secRon will meet at the following Rmes Friday: 5pm to 8pm Saturday: 11am to 2pm CHEM 106 is offered in the summer and Fall semesters so there is plenty of Rme to complete the course if you did not get in this semester. Chapters 10 and 11 Liquids, Solids and Proper3es of Solu3ons Selected topics Learning Goals for Chapters 10 & 11 1.  locate gas, liquid, and solid regions in simple phase diagrams, and be able to read boiling points and freezing points from the diagrams. 2.  describe the types of bonding in solids, parRcularly metallic bonds, network atomic bonds, molecular solids, and ionic solids 3.  given a structure, idenRfy the type of bonding in the solid 4.  given appropriate informaRon, you should be able to calculate concentraRons of soluRons in molarity, molality, and mole fracRon 5.  explain why non- volaRle solutes lower the vapor pressure of soluRons 6.  be able to explain Raoult’s Law diagrams for non- deal soluRons such as shown in Figure 11.13, and make predicRons on trends in vapor pressure based on intermolecular interacRons 7.  be able to explain the molecular basis of freezing point depression and boiling point elevaRon, and perform simple calculaRons of each for quanRtaRve predicRons Learning Goals for Chapters 10 & 11 1.  locate gas, liquid, and solid regions in simple phase diagrams, and be able to read boiling points and freezing points from the diagrams. 2.  describe the types of bonding in solids, parRcularly metallic bonds, network atomic bonds, molecular solids, and ionic solids 3.  given a structure, idenRfy the type of bonding in the solid 4.  given appropriate informaRon, you should be able to calculate concentraRons of soluRons in molarity, molality, and mole fracRon 5.  explain why non- volaRle solutes lower the vapor pressure of soluRons You will read about these on 6.  be able to explain Raoult’s Law diagrams for non- deal soluRons such your own as shown in Figure 11.13, and make predicRons on trends in vapor (secRon 10.3, p nteracRons pressure based on intermolecular i449 – 451) 7.  be able to explain the molecular basis of freezing point depression and boiling point elevaRon, and perform simple calculaRons of each for quanRtaRve predicRons Learning Goals for Chapters 10 & 11 1.  locate gas, liquid, and solid regions in simple phase diagrams, and be able to read boiling points and freezing points from the diagrams. 2.  describe the types of bonding in solids, parRcularly metallic bonds, network atomic bonds, molecular solids, and ionic solids 3.  given a structure, idenRfy the type of bonding in the solid 4.  given appropriate informaRon, you should be able to calculate concentraRons of soluRons in molarity, molality, and mole fracRon 5.   explain why non- volaRle solutes lower the vapor pressure of soluRons 6.  be able to explain Raoult’s Law diagrams for non- deal soluRons such I w 11.13, and make tredicRons on as shown in Figure ill introduce phis today trends in vapor pressure based on intermolecular iracRce it in and you will p nteracRons 7.  be able to explain the molecular basis on reezing point depression Workshop and o f f OWL and boiling point elevaRon, and perform simple calculaRons of each for quanRtaRve predicRons Learning Goals for Chapters 10 & 11 1.  locate gas, liquid, and solid regions in simple phase diagrams, and be able to read boiling points and freezing points from the diagrams.   describe the types of bonding in solids, parRcularly metallic bonds, 2. We onds, molecular solids, a during network atomic bwill cover these 4 nd ionic solids 3.  given a structure, idenRfy the type nd onding in the solid lecture today a of b you will 4.  given appropriate informaRon, you son Obe able to calculate pracRce them hould WL concentraRons of soluRons in molarity, molality, and mole fracRon 5.  explain why non- volaRle solutes lower the vapor pressure of soluRons 6.  be able to explain Raoult’s Law diagrams for non- ideal soluRons such as shown in Figure 11.13, and make predicRons on trends in vapor pressure based on intermolecular interacRons 7.  be able to explain the molecular basis of freezing point depression and boiling point elevaRon, and perform simple calculaRons of each for quanRtaRve predicRons Review: 3 States of MaWer Solid (s) Liquid (l) Gas (g) Definite Volume Definite Shape Vibra3ons Definite Volume No Definite Shape More movement Volume and Shape of its container Most movement Review: Hea3ng Curve and Latent Heat Why doesn’t the temperature change during a phase change? The IMF between parRcles need to be overcome! PHASE CHANGE 100 Temperature (°C) ΔHv: Latent heat of VAPORIZATION (both liquid and gas) 0 - 20 PHASE CHANGE ΔHf: Latent heat of FUSION During a phase change both phases of the substance occur simultaneously in EQUILIBRIUM (both solid and liquid) Heat (thermal energy) added at a constant Rate (kJ) Review: Hea3ng Curve and Latent Heat Why doesn’t the temperature change during a phase change? The IMF between parRcles need to be overcome! During the phase change the energy going in is used to weaken/break the IMF 100 °C 0 °C hKp://mutuslab.cs.uwindsor.ca/schurko/animaRons/waterphases/status_water.htm Clicker Q1: Level 1 – easy (LG. 1) Which would you predict should be larger for a given substance: ΔHfusion or ΔHvaporiza3on? A.  B.  C.  D.  ΔHfusion ΔHvaporizaRon They will be the same I have no means to predict this The transiRon from solid to liquid (ΔHf) requires that the IMF between parRcles are weakened The transiRon from liquid to gas (ΔHvap) requires that the IMF between parRcles are COMPLETELY BROKEN è༎ more energy required è༎ higher ΔH. Phase Diagrams (H2O as an example) A convenient way of represenRng the phases of a substance as a funcRon of both temperature and pressure: LIQUID Pressure (cm Hg) SOLID MelRng VaporizaRon Freezing CondensaRon 76 0 42 5 NORMA NORMAL L FREEZING MELTIN POINT G POINT (MelRng point) TRIPLE TRIPL POINT E POIN T NORMAL BOILING POINT 0 0.01 100 Temperature (°C) GAS The VAPOR PRESSURE is represented by the pressure values along this interface Phase Diagrams (H2O as an example) A convenient way of represenRng the phases of a substance as a funcRon of both temperature and pressure: Clicker Q2: Level 3 – difficult (LG. 1) What is the normal mel3ng point for the substance shown in this phase diagram? A.  B.  C.  D.  - 78 °C - 56.5 °C +31 °C It doesn’t melt under normal circumstances There is no Liquid at the temperature we would normally associate with the melRng point 3 Important proper3es of a Liquid While liquids have no fixed shape, they do have a fixed and definite volume. VISCOSITY: The measure of a liquids resistance to flow. SURFACE TENSION: The resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area CAPILLARY ACTION: The spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube. Viscosity of a liquid VISCOSITY: The measure of a liquids resistance to flow. Water (Low Viscosity Liquid) Corn Syrup (High Viscosity Liquid) When a liquid flows its parRcles must move past one another The higher the viscosity of the liquid the slower the flow Youtube: High VS Low Viscosity by mahyy003 Clicker Q3: Level 2 – normal What connec3on would you expect between the strength of intermolecular forces and viscosity? A.  Liquids with larger IMF tend to have higher viscosiRes. B.  Liquids with lower IMF tend to have higher viscosiRes. C.  There is no connecRon between IMF and viscosiRes Surface Tension of a liquid SURFACE TENSION: The resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area Surface ParRcles in the center of the liquid are more strongly aKracted to one another than parRcles near the surface. Youtube: Jesus Christ Lizard by Na3onal Geographic Clicker Q4: Level 1 – easy What connec3on would you expect between the strength of intermolecular forces and surface tension? A.  Liquids with larger IMF tend to have higher surface tensions. B.  Liquids with lower IMF tend to have higher surface tensions C.  There is no connecRon between IMF and Surface tension Capillary Ac3on of a liquid CAPILLARY ACTION: The spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube. What causes the liquid to rise in the tube? Youtube: Surface Tension and Capillary AcRon by BioRoche Cohesion and Adhesion forces What causes the liquid to rise in the tube? The interacRons btwn the liquid parRcles and the container parRcles Cohesive forces: intermolecular forces between the molecules of the liquid Water Adhesive forces: forces between the liquid molecules and their container Mercury Concave and Convex Adhesion forces Concave Meniscus Convex Meniscus Water Mercury Both the glass surface and the H2O are POLAR While the glass is POLAR, the Hg is NON- POLAR Aqueous Solu3ons Na Cl Na Cl Ag Cl- Cl- Na+ Br Ag+ Br- Na+ For a lot of this semester we will talk about reacRons that occur in soluRon (solvent è༎ water) Aqueous Solu3ons Na Cl Na Cl Ag Cl- Cl- Na+ Br Ag+ Br- Na+ For a ot of tissociate into ions ill soluRon Ionic slolids dhis semester we win talk about reacRons ghat occur o 4smoles of i ons: tives rise t in oluRon i.e. 2 mole of NaCl (solvent è༎ water) 2 mole of Na+ and 2 mole of Cl- Aqueous Units of Concentra3on Molarity (M) M"="" Moles"of"solute" Volume"of"solu-ons"(L)"" Molality (m) m"="" Moles"of"solute" Mass"of"solvent"(kg)""" Mole fracRon (χA) m"="" χA Moles"of"A" Total"moles"of"solu/on" Colliga3ve Proper3es of solu3ons ProperRes that depend on only the number of parRcles in a soluRon and not the idenRty of the parRcles! OsmoRc Pressure ( We will not cover this) Boiling Point ElevaRon Freezing Point Depression Freezing point depression helps to explain why we spread salt on the roads and sidewalks in NYC to melt the snow and ice in the winter! Clicker Q5: Level 1 – easy (LG.7) Thinking about colliga3ve property Freezing point depression, whic...
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