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lecture 2 - Psychosocial Health What was I thinking when I...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychosocial Health What was I thinking when I said hello? Understanding Thoughts and Emotions 4 How we see the world is determined by the mental process called cognition. Cognition is the act or process of knowing in the broadest sense. Includes perception, learning and reasoning. Emotions provide a sense of what is pleasant and unpleasant, which helps us evaluate experiences. Developing Coping Strategies Coping strategies are the methods 4 people use to solve life problems that cause emotional distress. Three categories Change the situation causing the problem. Alter the significance of the situation. Alter the feeling state without changing the situation or its interpretation. Psychosocial Health dimensions of health 4 The mental, emotional, social, and spiritual Mental Health The thinking part of your health which 4 includes your values, attitudes, and beliefs Emotional Health reactions to life 4 Feelings of health, includes your emotional Social Health Interactions with others, adaptation in 4 situations Social Support Social Bonds Spiritual Health Community Interconnectedness Everyday Life Mindfulness 4 Developing Coping Strategies Changing an interaction with a situation 4 Attack the situation headon. Avoid the situation. Adapt to the situation. Developing Coping Strategies Changing thoughts and beliefs may 4 entail: Evaluating the situation. Seeing your distress as necessary or temporary. Focusing on positive aspects of a situation and minimize the negative. Devaluating the goal and believe you will do fine no matter the outcome. Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms are strategies 4 people use to distort the perception and awareness of reality in order to avoid Unpleasant thoughts Memories Emotions Situations Facilitating Coping an emotional problem Family members Friends Clergy Counselors Psychotherapists Physicians 4 Help available for people suffering from Facilitating Coping Benefits of seeking help 4 Gaining a new perspective Developing workable solutions to problems Expressing suppressed emotions Fear is a powerful emotion that arises in Fears, Phobias and Anxiety 4 response to situations that are interpreted as dangerous. Anxiety is the response to an imaginary or future situation that is interpreted as threatening. A phobia is an intense irrational fear that can seriously disrupt a person's life. Phobias 4 Acrophobia: fear of heights. Agoraphobia: fear of open spaces. Mysophobia: fear of dirt and germs. Ophediophobia: fear of snakes. Zoophobia: fear of animals. Social phobia: also known as social anxiety disorder. Fear of being observed and evaluated by others in all social situations most of the time. Symptoms of Panic Attacks Chest pain Sweating Palpitations Chills or hot flashes Trembling Shortness of breath 4 A sensation of choking Fear of losing control or dying General Anxiety Disorder Chronic and exaggerated worry and 4 tension; even though provocation is not evident. Always anticipating for disaster, often worrying excessively about health, money, family or work. Generally begins in childhood or adolescence and more common in women than men; symptoms seem to diminish with age. ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder Characterized by anxious thoughts or 4 rituals you feel you cannot control. OCD affects about 2% of the US population; shows up in teens or early adulthood. Depression Characterized by feelings of dejection, 4 feelings of guilt, hopelessness, self recrimination, loss of appetite, insomnia, loss of interest in sex, withdrawal from social contacts, lowered selfesteem, inability to make decisions, or focusing on the negative. Depression Depression may be a response to: 4 Stress Severe psychological trauma Injury Disease Biological malfunction of some part of the brain Combination of factors Depression 4 Bipolar disorder is characterized by major episodes of depression alternating with periods of excited euphoria ("mania"). Some people are susceptible to depression during the winter months, this is known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and is believed to be linked to lack of exposure to sunlight. Depression Depression can accompany being very 4 sick or injured. Medication may also make one susceptible to depression. Dysthmia is associated with disturbances in sleep, appetite and ability to concentrate. Depression Overcoming depression 4 Movement (physical activity) restores fundamental breathing and other mind body rhythms. Increase interactions with other people who offer support. Recreational activity. Become aware of negative selftalk. In the U.S., suicide ranks among the 10 most frequent causes of death. Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people age 1524 years in the U.S. If a person considering suicide expresses suicidal thoughts to a friend or relative, it is important that the confidante is not judgmental, listens carefully and firmly directs the person to professional help immediately. Suicide 4 Occurs when an individual: Anger 4 To deal with anger constructively, one needs to understand the source of the emotion. has been attacked, blamed, hurt, or has experienced a loss. imagines he or she has been attacked, blamed, hurt, or has experienced a loss. imagines he or she may be attacked, blamed, hurt, or will experience a loss. feels his or her pursuit of an important goal is blocked. Sleep and Dreams 4 Everyone has a sleepwake cycle that corresponds to her or his optimal degree of wellbeing. A large percentage of Americans have sleep problems; experiences that can cause sleep problems include being sick, jet lag, being nervous about an upcoming exam, being excited about something, consuming too much food, alcohol, or caffeine, or losing a loved one. Insomnia Having trouble falling asleep or 4 staying asleep. Usually the result of the disruption of mind body harmony. Extreme daytime sleepiness may be a result of insomnia or lack of sleep. Parasomnias Activities that interrupt restful sleep. May include 4 Nightmares Sleepwalking Sleep apnea Understanding Dreams 4 Four stages of sleep. Dreams occur during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dreams usually occur between stage 4 (deep sleep) and the return to stage 1 (light sleep). Some researchers suggest that dreams may be necessary for brain growth, daily information processing, cellular rejuvenation, or processing and eliminating information and memories that are no longer useful. Mental Disorders 4 When brain injury or disease occurs thoughts, moods, and behaviors can be impaired. The brain, like other body organs, can be affected by: Injury Infectious disease Chemical toxins Inherited genetic disorders Debilitating mental disorder Schizophrenia 4 Manifests in the teenage years and progresses into adulthood. Cause is currently unknown, but some believe that biological (possibly inherited) factors are partially responsible. There is no cure, but medications and psychosocial counseling can help decrease symptoms. Seeking Help Because ? You think you need help You experience mood swings 4 A problem is interfering with daily life Your fears or guilt is distracting you You withdraw from others More signs You have thoughts of suicide You have inappropriate emotional 4 responses You turn to alcohol or drugs to escape You feel life is out of control Professional Help Psychiatrist Counselor Psychologist Social Worker 4 Psychoanalyst ...
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